Homepage for Stephen A. Klein

 

 

Contact Information:

Research Scientist
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
7000 East Avenue, L-103
Livermore, CA 94551

(925) 423-9777 (voice)
(925) 422-7675 (fax)
klein21@llnl.gov

Education

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Ph. D. from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, December 1994

Dissertation title:  "Large-scale variations in boundary layer cloud cover and their relationship to meteorological parameters

Thesis Advisor:     Professor Dennis L. Hartmann

Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio
B. A. in Physics, May 1989

Awarded highest honors in Physics

Professional Experience

Dr. Stephen Klein is a research scientist in the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (DOE LLNL) in Livermore, California. His research interests include clouds, their role in climate change, and the fidelity with which climate models simulate clouds. At LLNL, he leads projects sponsored by the DOE Office of Science which work at the interface between the observations that DOE collects and climate models that DOE supports. He is a lead author or co-author on over 80 peer-reviewed publications. Prior to arriving at LLNL in 2004, he was a research scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA GFDL), a leading climate modeling laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey. While there, he was instrumental in the creation of the atmospheric portion of the GFDL climate model known as AM2.

Stephen Klein received a Ph. D. from the University of Washington in Seattle working with Professor Dennis Hartmann on the analysis of marine stratocumulus clouds. Dr. Klein has extensive experience in the development of physical parameterizations for large-scale models. He incorporated cloud and turbulence parameterizations into the GFDL model and a cloud and precipitation overlap scheme into the model of the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts. During 2001-2003, he was co-chair of GFDL’s Global Atmospheric Model Development Team. At LLNL, he is a leader of efforts to integrate observational data taken by the DOE’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility with atmospheric numerical models including climate, single-column, and cloud resolving models. He is a leader of the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) that evaluates cloud parameterizations by running climate models in weather-forecast mode.

Stephen Klein also has extensive experience in the diagnosis of cloud behavior from observational data and the comparison of observational data to large-scale model predictions. He is a co-developer of the “ISCCP Simulator”, a software code that translates model clouds into direct equivalents to the ISCCP satellite cloud observations and which has been incorporated into many global climate models. He has also collaborated on the development of CloudSat and MODIS simulators for the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package that is also being embedded into many climate models.

Professional Employment

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

Research scientist, June 2004 – present

  • Leader for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s infrastructure team that provides ARM data to modelers (2004-2008).

  • Leader for the Department of Energy’s Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) project that performs weather prediction integrations of climate models to facilitate evaluation of parameterization improvements with ARM observations (2005-present). CAPT was formerly known as the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton, New Jersey

Research meteorologist, November 1997-May 2004

  • Co-chair of the Global Atmospheric Model Development Team at GFDL (2001-2003). Guided the evolution of the new AM2 model into a world-class climate model.

  • Developed and incorporated into AM2 several physics packages including prognostic cloud, K-profile moist turbulence, and cloud radiative properties parameterizations.

  • Temporally homogenized radiosonde temperature records to create reliable trends for the assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading, UK 

Consultant, February 1997-October 1997 

  • Developed a new tool which simulates how a satellite would view model clouds so that the clouds of ECMWF’s forecast model could be compared to data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Through subsequent development in collaboration with Mark Webb of the UK Meteorological Office (UKMO), the ‘ISCCP Simulator’ is now used in many models (e.g. UKMO, NCAR, and GFDL) to compare model clouds to ISCCP observations.

  • Collaborative research with Christian Jakob into the interactions of stratiform precipitation with partial cloud cover led to a new parameterization for the fractional area of a grid box containing stratiform precipitation which was subsequently incorporated into the ECMWF model.

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Visiting scientist, September 1995-February 1997

  • Observational data were used to determine the mechanisms which lead to anomalously warm sea surface temperatures in the Indian and tropical Atlantic several months after the peak of an El Niño event.

  • Examined theories for the equilibrium convective available potential energy of the tropical atmosphere

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Postdoctoral research associate, January 1995-July 1995

  • Examined the sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to clouds through use a two-box radiative convective model for the tropical atmosphere-ocean system.

Awards

2013  -   U. S. LLNL’s Physical and Life Sciences Directorate Award as an Outstanding Postdoc Mentor in recognition of exemplary mentoring, coaching, leadership, as well as scientific contributions to the community of climate and atmospheric researchers at LLNL

2012  -   American Geophysical Union “Ascent” Award for mid-career scientists in the fields of the atmospheric and climate sciences who have demonstrated excellence in research and leadership in their field

2009  -   U. S. Department of Energy’s Appreciation Award in recognition of your contributions as the leader of the Cloud Modeling Working Group of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

Professional Responsibilities

Co-Chair for theGlobal Atmospheric System Studies (GASS) (2011- ), the follow-on project to GEWEX Cloud Systems Studies (GCSS). Member of the GEWEX Scientific Steering Group(2011). Member of the steering committee for GCSS (2004-2006). GEWEX is theGlobal Earth and Water EXperiment.

Member of the Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee of the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program (2003-2008).

Science leader for the Cloud Modelling working group of ARM (2005-2008). Also served as a co-chair (2004-2005) and member (2002-2004, 2009) of the scientific steering committee for the same working group.  Member (2009-present) of the scientific steering committee for the Cloud Lifecycle Working group of the Atmospheric Systems Research (ASR) program. (From 2009, ASR is the science component for the ARM program).

Member of the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project’s (CFMIP) coordination committee (2008-present).

Reviewer of manuscripts for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Atmospheric Research, Bullentin of the American Meteorological Society, Climatic Change, Geophysical Research Letters, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, Journal of Climate, Journal of Geophysical Research, Monthly Weather Review, Nature, and the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society.

Reviewer of proposals for the Department of Energy’s ARM program and ASR programs, the National Science Foundation’s Climate Dynamics Division, the NOAA Pacific American Climate Studies CLImate VARiations program, the NOAA Office of Global Programs, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s New Investigator Program in Earth Science and the Modeling, Analysis and Prediction program, and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.

Panel Reviewer for the NASA CloudSat program (2006), the NASA Modeling program (2005) and the DOE ARM (2005) and ASR (2010) programs. 

First Author Peer-Reviewed Publications (11)

1. Klein, Stephen A., Y. Zhang, M. D. Zelinka, R. N. Pincus, J. Boyle, and P. J. Gleckler, 2013: Are climate model simulations of clouds improving? An evaluation using the ISCCP simulator. J. Geophys. Res.,118, 1–14, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50141.

2. ________, R. B. McCoy, H. Morrison, A. S. Ackerman, A. Avramov, G. de Boer, M. Chen, J. N. S. Cole, A. D. DelGenio, M. Falk, M. Foster, A. Fridlind, J.-C. Golaz, T. Hashino, J. Y. Harrington, C. Hoose, M. F. Khairoutdinov, V. E. Larson, X. Liu, Y. Luo, G. M. McFarquhar, S. Menon, R. A. J. Neggers, S. Park, M. R. Poellot, J. M. Schmidt, I. Sednev, B. J. Shipway, M. D. Shupe, D. Spangenberg, Y. C.  Sud, D. D. Turner, D. E. Veron, K. von Salzen, G. K. Walker, Z. Wang, A. B. Wolf, S. Xie, K.-M. Xu, F. Yang, and G. Zhang, 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 135, 979-1002, doi: 10.1002/qj.416.

3. ________, X. Jiang, J. Boyle, S. Malyshev, and S. Xie, 2006:  Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S. Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather forecasting approach.   Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18805, doi:10.1029/2006GL027567.

4. ________, R. Pincus, C. Hannay, and K.-M. Xu, 2005: How might a statistical cloud scheme be coupled with a mass-flux convection scheme? J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S06, doi:10.1029/2004JD005017.

5. ________ and C. Jakob, 1999: Validation and sensitivities of frontal clouds simulated by the ECMWF model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2514-2531. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<2514:VASOFC>2.0.CO;2

6. ________, B. J. Soden, and N.-C. Lau, 1999: Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Clim., 12, 917-932. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0917:RSSTVD>2.0.CO;2

7. ________, 1997: Comments on “Moist convective velocity and buoyancy scales”. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2775-2777, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2775:COMCVA>2.0.CO;2

8. ________, 1997: Synoptic variability of low-cloud properties and meteorological parameters in the subtropical trade wind boundary layer. J. Clim., 10, 2018-2039.

9. ________, D. L. Hartmann, and J. R. Norris, 1995: On the relationships among low-cloud structure, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric circulation in the summertime Northeast Pacific. J. Clim., 8, 1140- 1155.

10. ________ and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Spurious changes in the ISCCP dataset. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 455-458.

11.________ and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds. J. Clim., 6, 1587-1606.

Other Peer-Reviewed Publications (80)

1. de Boer, G., O. Persson, M. D. Shupe, P. M. Caldwell, S. E. Bauer, J. S. Boyle, S. A. Klein and M. Tjernstrom, 2014: Near-surface meteorology during ASCOS: Evaluation of representation in reanalyses and global climate models. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 427-445., doi:10.5194/acp-14-427-2014

2. Caldwell, P. M., C. S. Bretherton, M. D. Zelinka, S. A. Klein, B. D. Santer, and B. M. Sanderson, 2014: Statistical significance of climate sensitivity predictors obtained by data mining. Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.

3. Gordon, N. D. and S. A. Klein, 2014: Low-cloud optical depth feedback in climate models. J. Clim., submitted.

4. Ma, H.-Y., S. Xie, S. A. Klein, K. D. Williams, J. S. Boyle, S. Bony, H. Douville, S. Fermepin, B. Medeiros, S. Tyteca, M. Watanabe, and D. Williamson, 2014: On the correspondence between mean forecast errors and climate errors in CMIP5 models. J. Clim., doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00474.1.

5. Phillips, T. J. and S. A. Klein, 2014: Land-atmosphere coupling manifested in ARM warm-season observations on the U. S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., in press. Doi: 10.1002/2013JD020492

6. Caldwell, P. M., Y. Zhang and S. A. Klein, 2013: CMIP3 subtropical stratocumulus feedback interpreted through a mixed-layer model. J. Clim., 26, 1607–1625, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00188.1.

7. Lin, Y., M. Zhao, Y. Ming, J.-C. Golaz, L. J. Donner, S. A. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, and S. Xie, 2013: Precipitation partitioning, tropical clouds and intraseasonal variability in GFDL AM2. J. Clim., in press, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00442.1.

8. Ma, H.-Y., Xie, S., J. S. Boyle, S. A. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Metrics and diagnostics for precipitation-related processes in climate model short-range hindcasts. J. Clim., 26, 1516–1534, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00235.1.

9. Qu, X., A. Hall, and S. A. Klein, and P. M. Caldwell, 2013: On the spread of changes in marine low cloud cover in climate model simulations of the 21st century. Clim. Dyn. , doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1945-z .

10. Williams, K. D., A. Bodas-Salcedo, M. Deque, S. Fermepin, B. Medeiros, M. Watanabe, C. Jakob, S. A. Klein, C. A. Senior, and D. L. Williamson, 2013: The Transpose-AMIP II experiment and its application to the understanding of Southern Ocean cloud biases in climate models. J. Clim., 26, 3258–3274, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00429.1.

11. Zelinka, M. D., S. A. Klein, K. E. Taylor, T. Andrews, M. J. Webb, J. M. Gregory, and P. M. Forster, 2013: Contributions of different cloud types to feedbacks and rapid adjustments in CMIP5. J. Clim., 26, 5007–5027, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00555.1.

12. Zhang, Y. and S. A. Klein, 2013: Factors controlling the vertical extent of fair-weather shallow cumulus clouds over land: Investigation from diurnal-cycle observations of the diurnal cycle collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 1297–1315, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-12-0131.1.

13. Barton, N. P., S. A. Klein, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012: Arctic synoptic regimes: Comparing domain-wide Arctic cloud observations with CAM4 and CAM5 during similar dynamics. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D15205, doi:10.1029/2012JD017589

14. Kay, J. E., B. Hillman, S. A. Klein, Y. Zhang, B. Medeiros, A. Gettelman, R. Pincus, B. Eaton, J. Boyle, R. Marchand and T. Ackerman, 2012: Exposing global cloud biases in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) using satellite observations and their corresponding instrument simulators. J. Clim., 25, 5190-5207, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00469.1.

15. Lin, Y., L. J. Donner, J. Petch, P. Bechtold, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, T. Komori, K. Wapler, M. Willett, X. Xie, M. Zhao, S. Xie, S. A. McFarlane, and C. Schumacher, 2012: TWP-ICE global atmospheric model intercomparison: convection responsiveness and resolution impact. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09111, doi:10.1029/2011JD017018.

16. Xie, S., H.-Y. Ma, J. S. Boyle, S. A. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2012: On the correspondence between short- and long- timescale systematic errors in CAM4/CAM5 for the Years Of Tropical Convection. J. Clim., 25, 7937–7955, , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00134.1

17. Zelinka, M. D., S. A. Klein, and D. L. Hartmann, 2012a: Computing and partitioning cloud feedbacks using cloud property histograms. Part I: Cloud radiative kernels. J. Clim., 25, 3715–3735, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00248.1

18. Zelinka, M. D., S. A. Klein, and D. L. Hartmann, 2012b: Computing and partitioning cloud feedbacks using cloud property histograms. Part II: Attribution to the nature of cloud changes. J. Clim., 25, 3736–3754, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00249.1

19. Zhang, Y., S. Xie, C. Covey, D. D. Lucas, P. Gleckler, S. A. Klein, J. Tannahill, C. Doutriaux, and R. Klein, 2012: Regional assessment of the parameter-dependent performance of CAM4 in simulating tropical clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14708, , doi:10.1029/2012GL052184

20. Zhao, C., S. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delano, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Conner, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, 2012: Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10206, doi:10.1029/2011JD016792.

21. Zhao, C., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, X. Liu, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012: Aerosol first indirect effects on non-precipitating low-level liquid cloud properties as simulated by CAM5 at ARM sites. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L08806, doi:10.1029/2012GL051213.

22. Bodas-Salcedo, A., M. J. Webb, S. Bony, H. Chepfer, J.-L. Dufresne, S. A. Klein, Y. Zhang, R. Marchand, J. M. Haynes, R. Pincus, and V. O. John, 2011: COSP: A satellite simulation software for model assessment. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 92, 1023–1043, doi: 10.1175/2011BAMS2856.1

23. Donner, L. J., B. L. Wyman, R. S. Hemler, L. W. Horowitz, Y. Ming, M. Zhao, J.-C. Golaz, P. Ginoux, M. D. Schwarzkopf, J. Austin, G. Alaka, W. F. Cooke, S. R. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, S. Griffies, I. M. Held, W. J. Hurlin, S. A. Klein, A. R. Langenhorst, H.-C. Lee, S.-J. Lin, B. I. Magi, S. L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, V. Naik, M. J. Nath, R. Pincus, J. J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, C. J. Seman, E. Shevliakova, J. J. Siruits, W. F. Stern, R. J. Stouffer, R. J. Wilson, M. Winton, and A. T. Wittenberg, 2010: The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component of the GFDL global coupled model CM3. J. Clim., 24, 3484–3519, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3955.1 .

24. Liu, X., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Shi, Z. Wang, W. Lin, S. J. Ghan, M. Earle, P. S. K. Liu and A. Zelenyuk, 2011: Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00T11, doi:10.1029/2011JD015889.

25. Mace, G. G., S. Houser, S. Benson, S. A. Klein, and Q. Min, 2010: Critical evaluation of the ISCCP simulator using ground-based remote sensing data. J. Clim., 24, 1598-1612, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3517.1

26. Boyle, J. and S. A. Klein, 2010: Impact of model horizontal resolution on climate model forecasts of tropical precipitation and diabatic heating for the TWP-ICE period, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23113, doi:10.1029/2010JD014262

27. Broccoli, A. J. and S. A. Klein, 2010: Technical comment on “Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback”. Science, 329, 277-a, doi: 10.1126/science.1186796.

28. Chandra, A. S., P. Kollias, S. E. Giangrande, and S. A. Klein, 2010: Long-term observations of the convective boundary layer using insect radar returns at the SGP ARM Climate Research Facility. J. Clim., doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3395.1

29. Gettelman, A., X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, H. Morrison, S. Park, A. J. Conley, S. A. Klein, J. Boyle, D. L. Mitchell, J.-L. F. Li, 2010:Global simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2009JD013797.

30. Wyant, M. C., R. Wood, C. S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, J. Bacmeister, M. A. Balmaseda, B. Barrett, F. Codron, P. Earnshaw, J. Fast, C. Hannay, J. W. Kaiser, H. Kitagawa, S. A. Klein, M. Köhler, J. Manganello, H.-L. Pan, F. Sun, S. Wang, and Y. Wang, 2010: The PreVOCA experiment: modeling the lower troposphere in the Southeast Pacific Wyant. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4757-4774, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4757-2010.

31. Xie, S., T. Hume, C. Jakob, S. A. Klein, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2010: Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE. J. Clim., 23, 57–79, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1 .

32. Xie, S., R. B. McCoy, S. A. Klein, R. T. Cederwall, W. J. Wiscombe, E. E. Clothiaux, K. L. Gaustad, J.-C. Golaz, S. Hall, M. P. Jensen, K. L. Johnson, Y. Lin, C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, R. A. McCord, S. A. McFarlane, G. Palanisamy, Y. Shi, and D. D. Turner, 2010: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate data – A new data product for climate studies. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 91, 13–20, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1.

33. Zhang, Y., S. A. Klein, J. Boyle, and G. G. Mace, 2010: Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation simulations of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D12205, doi:10.1029/2009JD012006.

34. Zhang Y. and S. A. Klein, 2010: Mechanisms affecting the transition from shallow to deep convection over land: Inferences from observations of the diurnal cycle collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. J. Atmos. Sci., 67,2943–2959, doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3366.1.

35. Hannay, C., D. L. Williamson, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, J. Olson, S. A. Klein, C. S. Bretherton, and M. Köhler, 2009: Evaluation of forecasted southeast Pacific stratocumulus in the NCAR, GFDL and ECMWF models. J. Clim., 22, 2871–2889, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2479.1

36. Morrison, H., R. B. McCoy, S. A. Klein, S. Xie, Y. Luo, A. Avramov, M. Chen, J. N. S. Cole, M. Falk, M. Foster, A. D. Del Genio, J. Y. Harrington, C. Hoose, M. F. Khairoutdinov, V. E. Larson, X. Liu, G. M. McFarquhar, M. R. Poellot, B. J. Shipway, M. D. Shupe, Y. C. Sud, D. D. Turner, D. E. Veron, G. K. Walker, Z. Wang, A. B. Wolf, K.-M. Xu, F. Yang, and G. Zhang, 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layer cloud. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 135, 1003-1019, doi: 10.1002/qj.415

37. Santer, B. D., K. E. Taylor, P. J. Gleckler, C. Bonfils, T. P. Barnett, D. W. Pierce, T. M. L. Wigley, C. Mears, F. J. Wentz, W.Brüggemann, N. P. Gillett, S. A. Klein, S. Solomon, P. A. Stott, and M. F. Wehner, 2009: Incorporating model quality information in climate change detection and attribution studies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 106, 14778-14783, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901736106

38. Boyle, J., S. A. Klein, G. Zhang, S. Xie, and X. Wei, 2008: Climate model forecast experiments for TOGA-COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 808–832, doi:10.1175/2007MWR2145.1

39. Santer, B. D., P. W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K. E. Taylor, T. M. L. Wigley, J. R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P. J. Gleckler, P. D. Jones, T. R. Karl, S. A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G. A. Schmidt, S. C. Sherwood, and F. J. Wentz, 2008: Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. Int. J. Clim., 28, 1703–1722, doi: 10.1002/joc.1756

40. Teixeira, J., B. Stevens, C. S. Bretherton, R. Cederwall, J. D. Doyle, J. C. Golaz, A. A. M. Holtslag, S. A. Klein, J. K. Lundquist, D. A. Randall, A. P. Siebesma, and P. M. M. Soares, 2008: Parameterization of the atmospheric boundary layer: a view from just above the inversion. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 89, 453-458, doi:10.1175/BAMS-89-4-453.

41. Xie, S., J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Liu, and S. Ghan, 2008: Simulations of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D04211, doi: 10.1029/2007JD009225.

42. Zhang, Y., S. A. Klein, C. Liu, B. Tian, R. T. Marchand, J. M. Haynes, R. B. McCoy, Y. Zhang, and T. P. Ackerman, 2008: On the diurnal cycle of deep convection, high clouds, and upper troposphere water vapor in the Multi-scale Modeling Framework. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D16105, doi: 10.1029/2008JD009905.

43. Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, L. J. Donner, V. T. J. Phillips, S. A. Klein, P. A. Ginoux, and L. H. Horowitz, 2007: Modeling the interactions between aerosols and liquid water clouds with a self-consistent cloud scheme in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1189-1209, doi:10.1175/JAS3874.1.

44. Randall, D. A., R. A. Wood, S. Bony, R. Colman, T. Fichefet, J. Fyfe, V. Kattsov, A. Pitman, J. Shukla, J. Srinvasan, R. J. Stouffer, A. Sumi, and K. Taylor, 2007: Climate Models and Their Evaluation. (S. A. Klein was a contributing author.) In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

45. Santer, B. D., C. Mears, F. J. Wentz, K. E. Taylor, P. J. Gleckler, T. M. L. Wigley, T. P. Barnett, J. S. Boyle, W. Bruggemann, N. P. Gillett, S. A. Klein, G. A. Meehl, T. Nozawa, D. W. Pierce, P. A. Stott, W. M. Washington and M. F. Wehner, 2007: Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture contentProc. Nat. Acad. Sci, 104, 15248-15253, doi:10.1073/pnas.0702872104.

46. Zhang, Y., S. A. Klein, G. G. Mace, and J. Boyle, 2007: Cluster analysis of tropical clouds using CloudSat data.  Geophys. Res. Lett.,34, L12813, doi:10.1029/2007GL029336. 

47. Delworth, T. L., A. J. Broccoli, A. Rosati, R. J. Stouffer, V. Balaji, J. T. Beesley, W. F. Cooke, K. W. Dixon, J. Dunne, K. A. Dunne, J. W. Durachta, K. L. Findell, P. Ginoux, A. Gnanadesikan, C. T. Gordon, S. M. Griffies, R. Gudgel, M. J. Harrison, I. M. Held, R. S. Hemler, L. W. Horowitz, S. A. Klein, T. R. Knutson, P. J. Kushner, A. L. Langenhorst, H.-C. Lee, S. J. Lin, J. Lu, S. L. Malyshev, P. C. Milly, V. Ramaswamy, J. Russell, M. D. Schwarzkopf, E. Shevliakova, J. Sirutis, M. Spelman, W. F. Stern, M. Winton, A. T. Wittenberg, B. Wyman, F. Zeng, and R. Zhang, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models – Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics. J. Clim., 19, 643-674.

48. Jiang, X., N.-C. Lau, and S. A. Klein, 2006: Role of eastward propagating convection systems in the diurnal cycle and seasonal mean of summertime rainfall over the U. S.Great Plains. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19809, doi:10.1029/2006GL027022.

49. Pincus, R., R. Hemler, and S. A. Klein, 2006: Using stochastically-generated subcolumns to represent cloud structure in a large-scale modelMon. Wea. Rev., 134,3644-3656. DOI: 10.1175/MWR3257.1

50. Santer, B. D., T.  M. L. Wigley, P. J. Gleckler, C. Bonfils, M. F. Wehner, K. AchutaRao, T. P. Barnett, J. S. Boyle, W. Bruggemann, M. Fiorino, N. Gillett, J. E. Hansen, P. D. Jones, S. A. Klein, G. A. Meehl, S. C. B. Raper, R. W. Reynolds, P. A. Stott, K. E. Taylor, and W. M. Washington, 2006: Forced and unforced ocean temperature changes in Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclogenesis regions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Science, 103, 13905-13910, doi:10.1073/pnas.0602861103.

51. Sun, D.-Z., T. Zhang, C. Covey, S. A. Klein, W. D. Collins, J. J. Hack,J. T. Kiehl, G. A. Meehl, I. M. Held, and M. Suarez, 2006: Radiative and dynamical feedbacks over the equatorial cold-tongue: Results from nine atmospheric GCMs. J. Clim.194059–4074,  DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3835.1

52. Wyant, M. C., C. S. Bretherton, J. T. Bacmeister, J. T. Kiehl, I. M. Held, M. Zhao, S. A. Klein, and B. J. Soden, 2006: A comparison of low-latitude cloud properties and their response to climate chane in three AGCMs sorted into regimes using mid-tropospheric vertical velocity.Clim. Dyn., 27, 261–279, doi:10.1007/s0038-006-0138-4.

53. Xie, S., S. A. Klein, M. Zhang, J. J. Yio, R. T. Cederwall, and R. McCoy, 2006: Developing large-scale forcing data for single-column model and cloud-resolving model from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.111, D19104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006950.

54. Xie, S., S. A. Klein, J. J. Yio, A. C. M. Beljaars, C. Long, and M. Zhang, 2006: An assessment of the ECMWF model over the Arctic land using observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res. , 111, D05107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006509.

55. Gordon, N. D., J. R. Norris, C. P. Weaver, and S. A. Klein, 2005: Cluster analysis of cloud regimes and characteristic dynamics of midlatitude synoptic systems in observations and a model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S17, doi:10.1029/2004JD005027.

56. Kim, B.-G., S. A. Klein and J. R. Norris, 2005: Continental liquid-water cloud variability and its parameterization using ARM data. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S08, doi:10.1029/2004JD005122.

57. Pincus, R., C. Hannay, S. A. Klein, K.-M. Xu and R. Hemler, 2005: Overlap assumptions for assumed-PDF cloud schemes in large-scale models. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S09, doi:10.1029/2004JD005100.

58. Santer, B. D., T. M. L. Wigley, C. Mears, F. J. Wentz , S. A. Klein, D. J. Seidel, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, M. F. Wehner, P. J. Gleckler, J. S. Boyle, W. Collins, K. W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J. E. Hansen, G. S. Jones, T. R. Karl, J. R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G. A. Schmidt, 2005: Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551-1556, doi:10.1126/science.1114867.

59. Weaver, C. P., J. R. Norris, N. D. Gordon, and S. A. Klein, 2005: Dynamical controls on sub-GCM-grid-scale cloud variability for ARM case 4. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S05, doi:10.1029/2004JD005022.

60. Xie, S., M. Zhang, M. Branson, R. T. Cederwall, A. D. Del Genio, Z. A. Eitzen, S. J. Ghan, S. F. Iacobellis, K. L. Johnson, M. Khairoutdinov, S. A. Klein, S. K. Krueger, W. Lin, U. Lohmann, M. A. Miller, D. A. Randall, R. C. J. Somerville, Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, A. Wolf, X. Wu, K.-M. Xu, J. J. Yio, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, 2005: Simulations of midlatitude frontal clouds by SCMs and CRMs during the ARM March 2000 cloud IOP. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S03, doi:10.1029/2004JD005119.

61. Xu, K.-M., M. Zhang, Z. A. Eitzen, S. J. Ghan, S. A. Klein, X. Wu, S. Xie, M. Branson, A. D. Del Genio, S. F. Iacobellis, M. Khairoutdinov, W. Lin, U. Lohmann, D. A. Randall, R. C. J. Somerville, Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, A. Wolf, J. J. Yio, J. Zhang, 2005: Modeling springtime shallow frontal clouds with cloud-resolving and single-column models. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD005153. 

62. Zhang, M.-H., W.-Y. Lin, S. A. Klein, J. T. Bacmeister, S. Bony, R. T. Cederwall, A. D. DelGenio, J. J. Hack, N. G. Loeb, U. Lohmann, P. Minnis, I. Musat, R. Pinucs, P. Stier, M. J. Suarez, M. J. Webb, J. B. Wu, S.-C. Xie, M.-S. Yao, and J.-H. Zhang, 2005: Comparing clouds and their seasonal variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S02, doi:10.1029/2004JD005021.

63. Zhang, M.-H., S. Klein, D. Randall, R. Cederwall, and A. Del Genio, 2005: Introduction to special section on Toward Reducing Cloud-Climate Uncertainties in Atmospheric General Circulation Models. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S01, doi:10.1029/2005JD005923.

64. The GFDL Global Atmospheric Modeling Development Team, 2004: The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2/LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Clim., 17, 4641-4673.

65. Seidel, D. J., J. Angell, J. Christy, M. Free, S. A. Klein, J. Lanzante, C. Mears, D. Parker, M. Schabel, R. Spencer, A. Sterin, P. Thorne, and F. Wentz, 2004: Uncertainty in signals of large-scale climate variations in radiosonde and satellite upper-air temperature datasets. J. Clim., 17, 2225-2240.

66. Lanzante, J. R., S. A. Klein, and D. J. Seidel, 2003a: Temporal homogenization of monthly radiosonde temperature data. Part I: Methodology. J. Clim., 16, 224-240.

67. Lanzante, J. R., S. A. Klein, and D. J. Seidel, 2003b: Temporal homogenization of monthly radiosonde temperature data. Part II: Trends, sensitivities, and MSU comparison. J. Clim., 16, 241-262.

68. Shine, K. P., M. S. Bourqui, P. M. de F. Forster, S. H. E. Hare, U. Langematz, P. Braesicke, V. Grewe, M. Ponater, C. Schnadt, C. A. Smith, J. D. Haigh, J. Austin, N. Butchart, D. T. Shindell, W. J. Randel, T. Nagashima, R. W. Portmann, S. Solomon, D. J. Seidel, J. Lanzante, S. A. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, and M. D. Schwarzkopf, 2003: A comparison of model-simulated trends in stratospheric temperatures. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 129, 1565-1588.

69. Free, M., I. Durre, E. Aguilar, D. Seidel, T. Peterson, R. Eskridge, J. Luers, D. Parker, M. Gordon, J. Lanzante, S. Klein, J. Christy, S. Schroeder, B. Soden, L. McMillan, and E. Wetherhead, 2002: CARDS workshop on adjusting radiosonde temperature data for climate monitoring. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 83, 891-899.

70. Xie, S., K.-M. Xu, R. T. Cederwall, P. Bechtold, A. D. Del Genio, S. A. Klein, D. G. Cripe, S. J. Ghan, D. Gregory, S. F. Iacobellis, S. K. Krueger, U. Lohmann, J. C. Petch, D. A. Randall, L. D. Rotstayn, R. C. J. Somerville, Y. C. Sud, K. von Salzen, G. K. Walker, A. Wolf, J. J. Yio, G. J. Zhang, and M. Zhang, 2002: Intercomparison and evaluation of cumulus parameterizations under summertime midlatitude continental conditions. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 128, 1095-1135.

71. Ghan, S. J., D. A. Randall, K.-M. Xu, R. Cederwall, D. Cripe, J. Hack, S. Iacobellis, S. Klein, S. Krueger, U. Lohmann, J. Pedretti, A. Robock, L. Rotstayn, R. Somerville, G. Stenchikov, Y. Sud, G. Walker, S. Xie, J. Yio, and M. Zhang, 2000: A comparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2091-2124.

72. Jakob, C. and S. A. Klein, 2000: A parameterization of cloud and precipitation overlap for use in general circulation models. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 126, 2525-2544.

73. Norris, J. R. and S. A. Klein, 2000: Low-cloud type over the ocean from surface observations. Part III: Relationship to vertical motion and the regional surface synoptic environment. J. Clim., 13, 245-256.

74. Pincus, R. and S. A. Klein, 2000: Unresolved spatial variability and process rates in large scale models. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27059-27065.

75. Jakob, C. and S. A. Klein, 1999: The role of vertically varying cloud fraction in the parameterization of microphysical processes in the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 125, 941-965.

76. Larson, K., D. L. Hartmann, and S. A. Klein, 1999: On the role of clouds, water vapor, circulation and boundary layer structure in the sensitivity of the tropical climate. J. Clim. , 12 , 2359-2374. 

77. Pincus, R., McFarlane, S. A. and S. A. Klein, 1999: Albedo bias and the horizontal variability of clouds in subtropical marine boundary layers: observations from ships and satellites. J. Geophys. Res.>, 104, 6183-6191.

78. Rozendaal, M. A., C. B. Leovy, and S. A. Klein, 1995: An observational study of diurnal variations of marine stratiform cloud. J. Clim., 8 , 1795-1809.

79. Hartmann, D. L., M. L. Michelsen, and S. A. Klein, 1992: Seasonal variations of tropical intraseasonal oscillations: a 20-25 day oscillation in the Western Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 1277-1289.

80. Jackman, C. H., A. R. Douglass, K. E. Brueske, and S. A. Klein, 1991: The influence of dynamics on two-dimension model results: simulations of 14C and stratospheric aircraft NOx injections. J. Geophys. Res. , 96 , 22559-22572.

Other Publications (4)

1. Ackerman, T. P., A. D. Del Genio, R. G. Ellingson, R. A. Ferrare, S. A. Klein, G. M. McFarquhar, P. J. Lamb, C. N. Long, J. Verlinde, 2004: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan, Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program. DOE/ER Publication #ARM-0402 from the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, 62 pp.

2. Klein, S. A. and A. D. Del Genio, 2004: ARM’s support for GCM improvement: A white paper. DOE/ER Publication #ARM-06-012 from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, 14 pp.

3. Bony, S., M. Webb, B. Stevens, C. Bretherton, S. Klein and G. Tselioudis, 2008: CFMIP-GCSS plans for advancing assessments of cloud-climate feedbacks. GEWEX News, 18, 4, 10-12.

4. Bony, S., M. Webb, C. Bretherton, S. Klein, P. Siebesma, G. Tselioudis and M. Zhang, 2011: CFMIP: Towards a better evaluation and understanding of clouds and cloud feedbacks in CMIP5 models. CLIVAR Exchanges, 56, 16, 20-25.