Research Scientist, Group Leader
Cloud Processes Research
Atmospheric, Earth & Energy Division (L103)
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
7000 East Avenue, L-103
Livermore, CA 94551
(925) 422-6023 (voice)
(925) 422-7675 (fax)
Ph.D., 1998, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
M.S., 1988, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences.
B.S., 1985, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China.
My research interests have been on
climate modeling and climate model evaluation, convection
parameterizations, and field data analysis. The climate models that
have been worked on are the NSF/DOE Community Atmospheric Model (CAM)
and the DOE Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME). The
modeling tools used in these studies include single-column model
(SCM), cloud-resolving model (CRM), and the Cloud-Associated
Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT). CAPT
utilizes the short-range weather forecast technique in diagnosing and
understanding climate model errors. Both field data and satellite
observations are used in support climate model development and
My current climate modeling effort is
to co-lead the development of the Atmospheric component of the DOE
first generation of climate model – the Accelerated Climate
Modeling for Energy (ACME). Specific emphasis is to understand and
evaluate model physical parameterizations at both lower and high
resolutions and develop efficient tools and strategies for high-
resolution climate model tuning.
My research associated with CAPT is to
systematically explore the correspondence between short- and
long-timescale systematic errors in current climate models and
clarify over what timescales model systematic errors develop. The
goal is to provide essential clue to the origins of these errors. The
issues of particular interest include tropical precipitation errors,
such as the unrealistic double ITCZ pattern in the simulated
precipitation, and the overestimate of net shortwave absorbed
radiation in the stratocumulus cloud decks over the eastern
subtropical oceans and the Southern Ocean at about 60S.
My research on parameterization
development is mainly focused on convective trigger/closure as well
as relaxation timescale for deep convection. Specifically, I would
like to understand what physical processes and large-scale dynamic
and thermodynamic control of cumulus convection and how these
processes can be appropriately parameterized in climate models.
For the field data analysis, the goal
is to develop necessary data products with advanced data analysis
methods and quantify their uncertainty in support of cloud modeling
study and climate model development. I have been heavily involved in
the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program since 1998.
One of my responsibilities is to transform the detailed ARM
observations into a form that can be easily used by the climate
modeling community. Some widely used data products from my ARM
science infrastructure group include the ARM best estimate dataset
(ARMBE), the large-scale forcing data for SCM/CRM studies, and the
ARM ensemble cloud retrieval dataset (ACRED). We conduct relevant
research to scientifically promote ARM data particularly to the
climate modeling community, which includes the ongoing effort to
develop an ARM radar simulator and an ARM-oriented process
diagnostics package for GCMs to facilitate use of ARM data in climate
Before I came to the United States, my
research had been in the development of numerical weather forecast
model for medium-range weather forecasts, which included the
development of numerical methods for calculating large-scale
advection terms and parameterizations of cumulus convection.
Jun 2001- Present: Research Scientist,
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore,
Group leader for Cloud Processes
Research (2013 - Present)
Deputy group leader for Climate and
Carbon Science (2010 – 2013)
Co-Lead of the DOE multi-lab &
institution ACME Atmosphere Group (2015 - present)
Co-Lead of the DOE multi-lab &
institution Climate Model Development and Validation (CMDV) project at LLNL (2016 - present)
PI for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation
Measurement (ARM) program science data infrastructure team at LLNL to
provide data support to cloud modeling studies (2008 – Present)
Co-PI for the DOE Cloud-Associated
Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) project at
LLNL, which use the weather forecast technique to diagnose and
understand climate model errors (2010 –2015)
Oct 1998 - May 2001: Post-doctoral
researcher, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.
Led the effort to develop the
large-scale forcing data using the constrained variational
analysis approach for all ARM sounding Intensive Operational Periods.
Led the analysis of the joint GCSS/ARM
cloud modeling working group’s multi-model intercomparison
Case 3 - a summertime midlatitude
continental convection case.
Aug 1993 - Oct 1998: Research Assistant,
Inst. of Terrestrial and Planetary Atmosphere, SUNY at Stony Brook.
Stony Brook, New York.
Studied the large-scale dynamic and
thermodynamic control of cumulus convections with ARM data.
Developed a new convective triggering
function for deep convection.
Built an SCM based on the NCAR CCM3.
Jul 1988 - Aug. 1993: Research
scientist/Senior Research Scientist, Numerical Weather Prediction
Division, National Meteorological Center, Beijing, China.
Deputy group leader for the
Medium-range Weather Forecast Modeling Group, National Meteorological
Center, China (1992-1993).
Technical Leader for developing the
second generation of the Chinese medium-range weather forecast model
(1992-1993) and was promoted to Senior Research Scientist position in
Worked on the development of the
second generation of the Chinese medium-range weather forecast model
with the focus on cumulus parameterizations (1988 – 1993).
• Co-Leading the effort to develop atmospheric modeling component of the
DOE Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME).
• Leading/co-leading the effort to develop climate modeling testbeds
as well as critical observational data products and analysis tools for
climate model evaluation and development.
• Made significant contributions to the development of the second
generation of Chinese medium-range weather forecast model (1993). The
work received the first place
award of the Chinese Meteorological Administration
(CMA) Science and Technology Award in 1994, the most prestigious
award in CMA.
• Developed a new
convective triggering mechanism which was
used in the operational weather prediction model of the Japanese
Meteorological Agency (JMA) to improve its precipitation forecast
in 2008. Relevant studies were highlighted in both “Our Changing Planet - The U.S. Climate
Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2006” and the “DOE ARM Notable Research Findings for the
Past Five Years”.
• The research on developing continuous
large-scale forcing datasets for SCMs/CRMs was highlighted in the “DOE ARM Notable Research Finds for the
Past Five Years”.
• The ARM Best Estimate
(ARMBE) dataset was highlighted by the 2010 DOE BER Advisory
Committee (BERAC) review for the ARM program. The idea of creating
ARMBE-like dataset is being adopted by several field programs in US and European.
• Physical and Life Sciences Directorate
Mentor Award for “Outstanding Mentorship of Postdoctoral Staff”, Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory, 2016.
• Energy and Environment
Directorate Program Award for “developing a new convective triggering function for NCAR
CAM2 to improve the predicted precipitation over land”, Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory, 2004.
• Chinese Meteorological
Administration (CMA) Science and Technology Award (1st place)
for “developing the second
generation of Chinese medium-range weather forecast model”, CMA,
China, 1994. This is a team award.
• Beijing Meteorological
Society Young Scientist Best Science Paper Award (3rd place)
for the paper “A new positive
definite advection scheme and its application to the moisture
• Chinese National
Meteorological Center Young Scientist Award (1st place)
for “developing a new positive
definite advection scheme and its implementation in removing negative
moisture in the Beijing Limited-Area Model”, National Meteorological
and Leadership Roles (Selected)
• Co-Lead of the ACME Atmosphere Group for
developing the DOE atmospheric model of ACME (2015 – present).
• Infrastructure leader (Science Translator) for
DOE ARM/ASR modeling-related data developments (2005 –
• Co-Chair for the US ARM-EU Collaboration Working
Group in identifying and sharing initial and evaluation datasets for
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Global Climate Models (GCMs) (2013).
• Co-Chair for the DOE ASR “Quantification of
Uncertainty in Cloud Retrievals (QUICR)” Focus Group (2011 - 2015).
• Member of the DOE ARM Architecture and Services
Strategy Team (ASST) (2015 - ).
• Member of the DOE ARM Data Lifecycle and Architecture
Group (2012 – 2015).
• Member of the DOE ARM Data Reprocessing Advisory
Committee (2011 – 2014).
• Member of 2 Ph.D. student dissertation committees
(2013 - 2015).
• Co-chair or co-session convener for national and
international conferences and workshops.
• Member of review panels for the DOE Regional and
Global Climate Modeling program and Atmospheric System Research
program, and NASA Data for Operation and Assessment program.
• Member of review panels for LLNL Physical &
Life Science Directorate LDRD program (2015, 2016).
• Member of Lawrence Fellowship Research Committee (2007).
• Proposal reviews for DOE and NSF programs.
• Journal article reviews for Journal of
Geophysical Research, Geophysical Research Letter, Journal of
Climate, Monthly Weather Review, Climate Dynamics, Journal of
Atmospheric Science, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological
Society, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, International Journal
of Climatology, Atmospheric Research, Journal of the Meteorological
Society of Japan, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Journal, and The Open
Atmospheric Science Journal.
Invited/Plenary Presentations in Recent Years (2011-2016)
14. Xie. S. et al., 2016: Bridging the Gap
between GCM Clouds and Detailed Ground-Based Cloud Observations – the ARM
Cloud Radar Simulator, AOGS, Jul. 31 – Aug. 5, 2016, Beijing, China.
13. Xie. S. et al., 2016: Diagnosis of
Climate Model Errors in Simulating Surface Temperature over Central United
States, AOGS, Jul. 31 – Aug. 5, 2016, Beijing, China.
12. Xie, S. et al, 2015: Clouds and
Precipitation Simulated by the US DOE ACME. Invited speaker, AOGS,
Aug. 2-7, 2015, Singapore.
11. Collins. W., I., Kraucunas, and S. Xie, 2014: Climate Science.
Presenter, National Lab Day on Capital Hill, Sept. 16, 2014,
Washington D.C, USA.
10. Xie, S. et al., 2014:
Understanding Climate Model Errors using the Weather Forecast
Technique with Field Data. Invited speaker, AOGS, July 28 –
Aug. Sapporo, Japan.
9. Xie, S. et al., 2014: The DOE
ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud
Property Retrievals. Invited speaker, AOGS, July 28 – Aug.
8. Xie, S. and J. Mather, 2013: The
DOE ARM Program and Its Role in Climate Research. Invited speaker,
The Next Generation Climate Data Products Workshop, 14-19 July 2013,
Boulder, CO, USA.
7. Xie, S., A. Protat,
and C. Zhao, 2013: The US-DOE ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying
Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud Property Retrievals. Invited
speaker, AGU fall meeting, Dec. 9-13, 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA.
6. Xie, S., et al., 2013: Overview
of the ASR QUICR Activities. Plenary talk, 2013 ASR Science Team
Meeting, Mar. 18-21, 2013, Washington D. C., USA.
5. Xie S. et al., 2012: On the
Correspondence between Short- and Long- Timescale Systematic Errors
in Transpose-AMIP models. Plenary talk, 1st pan-GASS meeting,
September 10-14, 2012, Boulder, CO, USA.
4. Xie. S. et
al., 2012: Understanding Climate Model Parameterization Errors in Forecasts
Using Field Data. Invited speaker, AOGS-AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly,
Aug. 13-17, 2012, Singapore.
3. Xie S. et al., 2012:
Correspondence between Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in
Transpose-AMIP and CMIP5 Models. Invited speaker, AOGS-AGU (WPGM)
Joint Assembly, Aug. 13-17, 2012, Singapore.
2. Xie, S. et al., 2011:
Development of the Large-Scale Forcing Data to Support MC3E Cloud
Modeling Studies. Invited speaker, AGU fall meeting, Dec. 5-9, 2011,
San Francisco, CA, USA.
1. Xie, S., 2011: Transform
Detailed ARM Observations into An Useful Climate Modeling dataset.
Invited Speaker, DOE ARM Data Developer Meeting. July 16 – 17,
2011, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
First Author Peer-Reviewed Publications (15)
15. Xie, S., Y.
Zhang, S. E. Giangrande, M. P. Jensen, R.
McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2014: Interactions between Cumulus Convection
and Its Environment as Revealed by the MC3E Sounding Array. J. Geophys.
Res. Atmos., 119, 11784–11808, doi:
14. Xie, S., X. Liu, C.
Zhao, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Sensitivity of CAM5 Simulated Arctic Clouds
and Radiation to Ice Nucleation, J. Clim.
26, 5981-5999, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00517.1.
13. Xie, S., H. Ma, J.
Boyle, S. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2012: On the Correspondence
between Short- and Long- Timescale Systematic Errors in CAM4/CAM5 for
the Years of Tropical Convection. J. Clim.
25, 7937–7955. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00134.1.
16-coauthors, 2010: ARM climate modeling best estimate data,
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc,
91, 13–20 , doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1
11. Xie, S., T. Hume, C.
Jakob, S. Klein, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang,
2010: Observed large-scale structures and diabatic
heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE, J. Climate, 23,
57-79, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1< .
10. Xie, S., J. Boyle,
S. A. Klein, X. Liu and S. Ghan, 2008:
Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and
AM2 for M-PACE, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113,
D04211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009225 .
9. Xie, S., S. Klein, M.
Zhang, J. Yio, R. Cederall,
and R. McCoy, 2006: Developing large-scale forcing data for
single-column and cloud-resolving models from the Mixed-Phase Arctic
Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys.
Res., 111, D19104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006950 .
et al., 2006: An assessment of ECMWF analyses and model forecasts
over the North Slope of Alaska using observations from the ARM
Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys.
Res., 111, D05107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006509 .
7. Xie, S., and 24
co-authors, 2005: Simulations of midlatitude
frontal clouds by SCMs and CSRMs during the ARM March 2000 Cloud
IOP. J. Geophys. Res., 110,
6. Xie, S., M. H. Zhang,
J. S. Boyle, R. T. Cederwall, G. L. Potter,
and W. Y. Lin, 2004: Impact of a revised convective triggering
mechanism on CAM2 model simulations: results from short-range weather
forecasts. J. Geophys. Res. 109,
5. Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Developing
long-term single-column model/cloud system-resolving model forcing
using numerical weather prediction products constrained by surface
and top of the atmosphere observations. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01104,
4. Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, M. H. Zhang, and J. J. Yio, 2003: Comparison of SCM and CSRM Forcing
Data Derived from the ECMWF Model and From Objective Analysis at the
ARM SGP Site. J. Geophys. Res., 108
(D16), 4499, doi:10.1029/2003JD003541.
3. Xie, S., et al.,
2002: Intercomparison and Evaluation of Cumulus
Parameterization under Summertime Midlatitude
Continental Conditions. Q. J. R. Meteorol.
Soc., 128, 1095-1136, DOI: 10.1256/003590002320373229
2. Xie, S., and M. H.
Zhang, 2000: Impact of the Convection triggering Function on
Single-Column Model Simulations. J. Geophys.
Res., 105, 14983-14996, DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900170
1. Xie, S. C., 1991: A New
Positive Definite Advection Scheme and its Application to the
Moisture Equation. ACTA METEOROLOGICA SINICA, Vol.49,
Other Peer-Reviewed Publications
60. Zhang, Y., S. Xie, et al., 2016: ARM Cloud Radar Simulator for Global Climate Models – A New Tool for Bridging Field Data and Climate Models. To be submitted to BAMS
59. Zhang, Y., S. Klein, J. Fan, A. Chandra, P. Kollias, S. Xie, and S. Tang, 2016: Large eddy simulation of shallow cumulus over land: A composite case based on ARM long-term observations at the Southern Great Plains site. To be submitted to JAS.
58. Zhang, C., S. Xie, S. Klein, and H. Ma, 2016: Diagnosis of the Summertime Warm Bias in Climate Models at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site. To be submitted to J. Climate.
57. Feldman, D. R., W. D. Collins, S.C. Biraud, M.D. Risser, D.D. Turner, P.J. Gero, S. Xie, E.J. Mlawer, T.R Shippert, L.D. Riihimaki, E.J. Dlugokency, P.C. Novelli, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, M.S. Torn, 2016: First observation of CH4 surface radiative forcing reveals local dominance relative to CO2. To be submitted.
56. Ciesielski, P., R. H. Johnson, X. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2016: Relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection during DYNAMO. JGR, submitted.
55. Zhang, T., M. Zhang, Y. Lin, W. Xue, W. Lin, H. Yu, J. He, X. Xin, H. Ma, S. Xie, W. Zheng, 2016: An effective parameter optimization method via short-term hindcasts using an atmospheric GCM. JAMES, Submitted.
54. Jiang, T., K. J. Evans, M. Branstetter, P. Caldwell, R. Neale, P. Rasch, Q. Tang, and S. Xie, 2016: Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric blocking in high-resolution configurations of the ACME simulations. JGR-atmosphere, Submitted.
53. Tang, S., S. Xie, et al. 2016: Large-Scale Vertical Velocity, Diabatic Heating and Drying Profiles Associated with Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Convective Systems Observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-644, under review.
52. Tang, S. , M. Zhang, and S. Xie 2015: Ensemble
Constrained Variational Analysis of
Atmospheric Forcing Data for Process Models and Application to
Evaluate Simulated Clouds in CAM. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., doi: 10.1002/2015JD024167.
Ma, H. et al. (including S. Xie) 2015: Evaluation and
diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models with an
improved hindcast approach. Journal of
Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, 1810–1827, doi:10.1002/2015MS000490.
Jensen, M.P., W.A. Petersen, A. Bansemer, N. Bharadwaj, L.D. Carey, D.J. Cecil, S.M. Collis, A.D. Del Genio, B. Dolan, J. Gerlach, S.E. Giangrande, A. Heymsfield, G. Heymsfield, P. Kollias, T.J. Lang, S.W. Nesbitt, A. Neumann, M. Poellot, S.A. Rutledge, M. Schwaller, A. Tokay, C.R. Williams, D.B. Wolff, S. Xie, and E.J. Zipser, 2015: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., in press, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00228.1.
Zhang, M., Somerville, R.C. and Xie, S., 2016. The SCM Concept and Creation of ARM Forcing Datasets. Meteorological Monographs, 57, pp.24-1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0040.1.
Muhlbauer, A., T. P. Ackerman, P. R.
Lawson, S. Xie, and Y. Zhang, 2015: An observationally-based study
case of midlatitude cirrus for
cloud-permitting and cloud-resolving models. J. Geophys.
Res. Atmos., 120, 6597-6618, doi:10.1002/2014JD022570.
Chen, X., Q. Tang, S. Xie, and C. Zhao (2015), A
variance-based decomposition and global sensitivity index method for
uncertainty quantification: Application to retrieved ice cloud
properties. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120,
Boyle, J. S., Klein, S. A., Lucas, D. D., Ma, H. -Y. ., Tannahill, J. and
Xie, S. (2015), The parametric sensitivity of CAM5's MJO. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120: 1424–1444. doi:
Vogelmann, A. M., A. M. Fridlind, T. Toto, S. Endo, W. Lin, J. Wang, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, D. D. Turner, Y. Liu, Z. Li, S.
Xie, A. S. Ackerman, M. Zhang, and M. Khairoutdinov
(2015), RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 1.
Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings.
J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120,
Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D.,
Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge,
D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., and
Xie, S.: The Midlatitude Continental
Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations,
processing and analysis, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 421-434, doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015, 2015.
Ma, H., S. Xie, S. Klein, et al. 2014: On the Correspondence
between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models. J.
Climate. 27, 1781-1798. doi:
Zhao, C., S. Xie, X. Chen, M. Jensen, and M. Dunn, 2014:
Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals
with a perturbation method. J.
Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 5375–5385,
Petch, J., A. Hill, L. Davis, A. Fridlind, C. Jakob, Y.
Lin, S. Xie, and P. Zhu, 2014: Evaluation of intercomparison
of four different types of model simulating TWP-ICE, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 826-837, DOI:
H., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2013:
Development of Metrics and Diagnostics for CAM Climate Model
Short-range Forecasts. J. Climate. 26,
1516-1534. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00235.1.
39. Lin, Y., M.
Zhao, Y. Ming, J-C. Golaz, L. J. Donner, S.
A. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, and S. Xie,
2013: Precipitation partitioning, tropical clouds and intraseasonal variability in GFDL AM2. J. Clim. , 26, 5453–5466.
38. Davies, L., et
al. (including S. Xie), 2013: A Single Column Model Ensemble
approach applied the TWP-ICE experiment. J. Geophys.
Res., 118, 6544-6563,
37. Davies, L. C. Jakob, V. Kumar, P. May and S. Xie, 2013:
Relationships between the large-scale atmosphere and the small-scale
state for Darwin, Australia. J. Geophys.
Res., accepted. DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50645.
36. Zhang, Y., S.
Xie, C. Covey, D. D. Lucas, P. Gleckler,
S. Klein, J. Tannahill, C. Doutriaux,and R. Klein,
2012: Regional assessment of the parameter-dependent performance of
CAM4 in simulating tropical clouds. Geophys.
Res. Lett., 39,
35. Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA
McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012: Evaluation of Cloud Fraction and
Its Radiative Effect Simulated by IPCC AR4 Global Models Against ARM
Surface Observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1785-1810. DOI:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012.
34. Zhao, C., S.
A. Klein, S. Xie, X. Liu, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012:
Aerosol First Indirect effects on non-precipitating low-level liquid
cloud properties as simulated by CAM5 at ARM sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39,
33. Fridlind, A., et al.
(including S. Xie), 2012: A Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Based on the Tropical Warm
Pool–International Cloud Experiment, Part I: Specification and
Results versus Domain-Wide Observations. J. Geophys.
Res., 117, D05204 DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016595.
32. Zhao, C. S. Xie, S.
Klein, et al., 2012: Toward Understanding of Differences in Current
Cloud Retrievals of ARM Ground-based Measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10206,
31. 2012: An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud
microphysics retrievals and implication for model evaluation studies.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1409-1424
30. Lin, Y., L. J.
Donner, J. Petch, P. Bechtold,
J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, T. Komori, K. Wapler,
M. Willett, X. Xie, M. Zhao, S. Xie, S. A. MaFarlane,
C. Schumacher, 2012: TWP-ICE global atmospheric model intercomparison: Convection responsiveness and
resolution impact. J. Geophys. Res., 117,
D09111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD017018.
29. Chuang, C. C., J. Kelly, J. Boyle, and
S. Xie, 2012: Sensitivity of
Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Nucleation and Autoconversion
Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts over the Southern
Great Plains During May 2003 IOP. Journal of Advances in Modeling
Earth Systems, DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000161.
28. Liu, X., S. Xie, J.
Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Shi, Z. Wang, W. Lin, S. J. Ghan, M. Earle, P. S. K. Liu, and A. Zelenyuk1,
2011: Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with
ISDAC and M-PACE Observations. J. Geophys.
Res., 116, D00T11, doi:10.1029/2011JD015889.
27. Zeng, X., W. Tao,
T. Matsui, S. Xie, S. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li
2011: Estimating the ice crystal enhancement factor in the
tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. 68, 1424-1434.
26. McFarquhar, G., S. Ghan, et al. (including S. Xie), 2011:
Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC): The Impact of
Arctic Aerosols on Clouds, Bull. Amer. Meteor.,doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2935.1.
25. Kennedy, A., X. Dong, B. Xi, S.
Xie, Y. Zhang, and J. Chen, 2011: A Comparison of MERRA and NARR
Reanalysis Datasets with the DOE ARM SGP Continuous Forcing data. J.
4541-4557 DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3978.1.
24. Woolnough, S. J., P. N. Blossey,
K .- M. Xu, P. Bechtold, J.-P. Chaboureau,
T. Hosomi, S.F. Iacobellis,
Y. Luo, J. C. Petch,
R. Y. Wong, and S. Xie, 2010: Modeling convective processes
during the suppressed phase of a Madden-Julian Oscillation: Comparing
single-column models with cloud-resolving models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. ,136 , 333-353, DOI:10.1002/qj.568.
23. Wang, W., X. Liu, S. Xie,
J. Boyle, and S. McFarlane, 2009: Testing ice microphysics
parameterizations in NCAR CAM3 using TWP-ICE data, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14107, doi:10.1029/2008JD011220 .
22. Zeng, X., W. Tao, M.Zhang, A. Hou, S.
Xie, S. Lang, X. li, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2009: A contribution by
ice neclei to global warming. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 1614-1629. DOI:10.1002/qj.449 .
21. Klein et al. (including S. Xie)
2009: Intercomparison of model simulations
of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic
Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., . Soc., 135:
979-1002. DOI:10.1002/qi.416 .
etal. (including S.
Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model
simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase
Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135: doi :10.1002
X., W. Tao et al., S. Xie , et al., 2009: The
indirect effect of ice nuclei on atmospheric radiation. J.
Atmos. Sci. 66,
41-61. doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2778.1
18. Boyle, J., S. Klein, G.
Zhang, S. Xie, R. Pincus, and X.
Wei, 2008: Climate model forecast experiments for TOGA-COARE. Mon.
Wea. Rev., 136, 808-832. doi: 10.1175/2007MWR2145.1
17. Guo, H., J. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, 2007: In vestigation of the first and second aerosol
indirect effects on clouds during the May 2003 ARM intensive
operational period at Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206,
X., W. Tao et al., S. Xie et al., 2007: Evaluation of
long-term cloud resolving modeling with observational cloudy
data. J. Atmos. Sci. 64, 4153-4177. doi: 10.1175/2007JAS2170.1
15. Liu, X., S. Xie, and
S. J. Ghan, 2007: Evaluation of a new
mixed-Phase cloud microphysics parameterization with the NCAR single
column climate model (SCAM) and ARM M-PACE observations, Geophysical
Research Letter, 34,
L23712, doi:10.1029/2007GL031446 .
14. Klein, S., X. Jiang, J.
Boyle, S. Malyshev, S. Xie, 2006:
Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S.
Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather
forecasting approach. Geophys.
Res. Lett ., 33,
K.-M., M. H. Zhang , …, S. Xie et
al., 2005:. Modeling springtime shallow and deep frontal clouds with
CRMs and SCMs. J. Geophys. Res.,
D15S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD005153 .
12. Boyle, J. S.,
et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Diagnosis of CAM2 in NWP
configuration. J. Geophys. Res.,
110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005042 .
11. Williamson, D.
L., et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Moisture and temperature budgets
at the ARM SGP site in forecasts with CAM2. J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005109 .
10. Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, et al, and S.
Xie, 2005: Comparing clouds and their variations in 10
atmospheric general circulation models with satellite
measurements. J. Geophys.
Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005021 .
9. Phillips, T. J., et
al., and S. Xie
, 2004: The CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT): Where climate simulation meet
with weather prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,85 , 1903-1915. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-85-12-1903
8. Xu, K.-M., R. T. Cederwall et
al., and S. Xie, 2002: An Intercomparison
of cloud-resolving models with the ARM summer 1997 IOP data. Q. J.
R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 593-624.
7. Waliser, D. E., J. Ridout, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2002: A
Model Assessment of the Variational
Objective Analysis: Implications for Atmospheric Field Programs. J.
Atmos. Sci., 59, 3436-3456. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<3436:VOAFAF>2.0.CO;2
6. Zhang M. H.,
J. L. Lin, R. Cederwall, J. Yio, and S.C. Xie, 2001: Objective
Analysis of ARM IOP Data: Method, Features, and Sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 295 – 311.doi:
5. Ghan S., et al.,
and S. Xie, 2000: An Intercomparison
of Single Column Model Simulations of Summertime Midlatitude
Continental Convection. J. Geophys.
Res., 105, 2091-2121. doi: 10.1029/1999JD900971
4. Zhang, M. H.,
R. D. Cess, and S. C. Xie, 1996:
Relationship between Cloud Radiative
Forcing and Sea Surface Temperatures over the Entire Tropical
Oceans. J. Climate, 9, 1374 -1384.doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1374:RBCRFA>2.0.CO;2
3. Tu, W., S. C. Xie, and W. Chen, 1995:
Experiments of the NMC (Beijing) T63 Four-Dimensional Data
Assimilation Operational System. Quart.
J. of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 6,
2. Shen, Y., X. Ding,
and S. Xie, 1994: Analysis increment vertical interpolation
scheme in T63 data assimilation and its experiments. Quart. J. of Applied Meteorology, Vol.
1. Tian Y., and S.
C. Xie, 1987: Test of Explicit Integration Schemes for the Barotropic Primitive Equation Model. Journal
of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, Vol.10,
White Papers and Other Program Documents (2011-2015)
1. Contributed to
the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Data
Decadal Vision. DOE ARM documentation, in preparation, 2015.
2. DOE Workshop
Report on “ACME/ASR/ARM coordination meeting”, Oct. 21-22, 2015,
Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation, in preparation,
3. DOE Workshop
Report on “DOE Data and Informatics Workshop”, August 13-15, 2015,
Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation.,
in preparation, (workshop participant).
4. DOE Workshop
Report on “The DOE High-Resolution Modeling Workshop”, May 19-20,
2014, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).
5. DOE Workshop
Report on “The DOE ARM North Slope of Alaska Supersite Workshop”,
Sept. 10-11, 2014, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).
6. Contributed to
the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility
Decadal Vision. DOE ARM documentation, http://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-sc-arm-14-029.pdf,
7. Haeffelin M. and S. Xie. 2013: US-EU
Data-Harmonization Working Group Whitepaper for “Atmospheric Research
Observatory Data Re-Analysis for GCM and LES Initialization and
Evaluation and Climate Studies”. DOE ARM documentation.
8. DOE Workshop
Report on “Climate Change Challenges and Observations”, November
2012, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).
9. DOE Workshop
Report on “Community Modeling and Long-Term Predictions of the
Integrated Water Cycle”, September 2012, Washington D. C., USA. DOE
BER Documentation. (workshop participant).
10 Xie, S., et al. 2011: The whitepaper for “Quantification of
Uncertainty in Cloud Retrievals (QUICR)”. DOE ARM documentation.
Xie, S., et al. 2011: Guidance for
Modification and Reprocessing of ARM Datastreams.
DOE ARM documentation.