Homepage for Shaocheng Xie




Contact Information:

Research Scientist, Group Leader
Cloud Processes Research
Atmospheric, Earth & Energy Division (L103)
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
7000 East Avenue, L-103
Livermore, CA 94551

(925) 422-6023 (voice)
(925) 422-7675 (fax)


Ph.D., 1998, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
M.S., 1988, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences.
B.S., 1985, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China.

Research Interest

My research interests have been on climate modeling and climate model evaluation, convection parameterizations, and field data analysis. The climate models that have been worked on are the NSF/DOE Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and the DOE Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME). The modeling tools used in these studies include single-column model (SCM), cloud-resolving model (CRM), and the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT). CAPT utilizes the short-range weather forecast technique in diagnosing and understanding climate model errors. Both field data and satellite observations are used in support climate model development and evaluation.

My current climate modeling effort is to co-lead the development of the Atmospheric component of the DOE first generation of climate model – the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME). Specific emphasis is to understand and evaluate model physical parameterizations at both lower and high resolutions and develop efficient tools and strategies for high- resolution climate model tuning.

My research associated with CAPT is to systematically explore the correspondence between short- and long-timescale systematic errors in current climate models and clarify over what timescales model systematic errors develop. The goal is to provide essential clue to the origins of these errors. The issues of particular interest include tropical precipitation errors, such as the unrealistic double ITCZ pattern in the simulated precipitation, and the overestimate of net shortwave absorbed radiation in the stratocumulus cloud decks over the eastern subtropical oceans and the Southern Ocean at about 60S.

My research on parameterization development is mainly focused on convective trigger/closure as well as relaxation timescale for deep convection. Specifically, I would like to understand what physical processes and large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic control of cumulus convection and how these processes can be appropriately parameterized in climate models.

For the field data analysis, the goal is to develop necessary data products with advanced data analysis methods and quantify their uncertainty in support of cloud modeling study and climate model development. I have been heavily involved in the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program since 1998. One of my responsibilities is to transform the detailed ARM observations into a form that can be easily used by the climate modeling community. Some widely used data products from my ARM science infrastructure group include the ARM best estimate dataset (ARMBE), the large-scale forcing data for SCM/CRM studies, and the ARM ensemble cloud retrieval dataset (ACRED). We conduct relevant research to scientifically promote ARM data particularly to the climate modeling community, which includes the ongoing effort to develop an ARM radar simulator and an ARM-oriented process diagnostics package for GCMs to facilitate use of ARM data in climate model evaluations.

Before I came to the United States, my research had been in the development of numerical weather forecast model for medium-range weather forecasts, which included the development of numerical methods for calculating large-scale advection terms and parameterizations of cumulus convection.

Professional Employment

Jun 2001- Present: Research Scientist, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

·       Group leader for Cloud Processes Research (2013 - Present)

·       Deputy group leader for Climate and Carbon Science (2010 – 2013)

·       Co-Lead of the DOE multi-lab & institution ACME Atmosphere Group (2015 - present)

·       Co-Lead of the DOE multi-lab & institution Climate Model Development and Validation (CMDV) project at LLNL (2016 - present)

·       PI for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program science data infrastructure team at LLNL to provide data support to cloud modeling studies (2008 – Present)

·       Co-PI for the DOE Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) project at LLNL, which use the weather forecast technique to diagnose and understand climate model errors (2010 –2015)

Oct 1998 - May 2001: Post-doctoral researcher, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

·       Led the effort to develop the large-scale forcing data using the constrained variational analysis approach for all ARM sounding Intensive Operational Periods.

·       Led the analysis of the joint GCSS/ARM cloud modeling working group’s multi-model intercomparison Case 3 - a summertime midlatitude continental convection case.

Aug 1993 - Oct 1998: Research Assistant, Inst. of Terrestrial and Planetary Atmosphere, SUNY at Stony Brook. Stony Brook, New York. 

·       Studied the large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic control of cumulus convections with ARM data.

·       Developed a new convective triggering function for deep convection.

·       Built an SCM based on the NCAR CCM3.

Jul 1988 - Aug. 1993: Research scientist/Senior Research Scientist, Numerical Weather Prediction Division, National Meteorological Center, Beijing, China.

·       Deputy group leader for the Medium-range Weather Forecast Modeling Group, National Meteorological Center, China (1992-1993).

·       Technical Leader for developing the second generation of the Chinese medium-range weather forecast model (1992-1993) and was promoted to Senior Research Scientist position in April 1993.

·       Worked on the development of the second generation of the Chinese medium-range weather forecast model with the focus on cumulus parameterizations (1988 – 1993).

Research Highlights

• Co-Leading the effort to develop atmospheric modeling component of the DOE Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME).

• Leading/co-leading the effort to develop climate modeling testbeds as well as critical observational data products and analysis tools for climate model evaluation and development.

• Made significant contributions to the development of the second generation of Chinese medium-range weather forecast model (1993). The work received the first place award of the Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA) Science and Technology Award in 1994, the most prestigious award in CMA.

Developed a new convective triggering mechanism which was used in the operational weather prediction model of the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) to improve its precipitation forecast in 2008. Relevant studies were highlighted in both “Our Changing Planet - The U.S. Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2006” and the “DOE ARM Notable Research Findings for the Past Five Years”.

• The research on developing continuous large-scale forcing datasets for SCMs/CRMs was highlighted in the “DOE ARM Notable Research Finds for the Past Five Years”.

The ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) dataset was highlighted by the 2010 DOE BER Advisory Committee (BERAC) review for the ARM program. The idea of creating ARMBE-like dataset is being adopted by several field programs in US and European.

Awards (selected)

Physical and Life Sciences Directorate Mentor Award for “Outstanding Mentorship of Postdoctoral Staff”, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2016.

Energy and Environment Directorate Program Award for “developing a new convective triggering function for NCAR CAM2 to improve the predicted precipitation over land”, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2004.

Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA) Science and Technology Award (1st place) for “developing the second generation of Chinese medium-range weather forecast model”, CMA, China, 1994. This is a team award.

Beijing Meteorological Society Young Scientist Best Science Paper Award (3rd place) for the paper “A new positive definite advection scheme and its application to the moisture equation”, 1992.

Chinese National Meteorological Center Young Scientist Award (1st place) for “developing a new positive definite advection scheme and its implementation in removing negative moisture in the Beijing Limited-Area Model”, National Meteorological Center, 1988.

Professional Activities and Leadership Roles (Selected)

• Co-Lead of the ACME Atmosphere Group for developing the DOE atmospheric model of ACME (2015 – present).

• Infrastructure leader (Science Translator) for DOE ARM/ASR modeling-related data developments (2005 – present).

• Co-Chair for the US ARM-EU Collaboration Working Group in identifying and sharing initial and evaluation datasets for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Global Climate Models (GCMs) (2013).

• Co-Chair for the DOE ASR “Quantification of Uncertainty in Cloud Retrievals (QUICR)” Focus Group (2011 - 2015).

• Member of the DOE ARM Architecture and Services Strategy Team (ASST) (2015 - ).

• Member of the DOE ARM Data Lifecycle and Architecture Group (2012 – 2015).

• Member of the DOE ARM Data Reprocessing Advisory Committee (2011 – 2014).

• Member of 2 Ph.D. student dissertation committees (2013 - 2015).

• Co-chair or co-session convener for national and international conferences and workshops.

• Member of review panels for the DOE Regional and Global Climate Modeling program and Atmospheric System Research program, and NASA Data for Operation and Assessment program.

• Member of review panels for LLNL Physical & Life Science Directorate LDRD program (2015, 2016).

• Member of Lawrence Fellowship Research Committee (2007).

• Proposal reviews for DOE and NSF programs.

• Journal article reviews for Journal of Geophysical Research, Geophysical Research Letter, Journal of Climate, Monthly Weather Review, Climate Dynamics, Journal of Atmospheric Science, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, International Journal of Climatology, Atmospheric Research, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Journal, and The Open Atmospheric Science Journal.

Invited/Plenary Presentations in Recent Years (2011-2016)

14. Xie. S. et al., 2016: Bridging the Gap between GCM Clouds and Detailed Ground-Based Cloud Observations – the ARM Cloud Radar Simulator, AOGS, Jul. 31 – Aug. 5, 2016, Beijing, China.

13. Xie. S. et al., 2016: Diagnosis of Climate Model Errors in Simulating Surface Temperature over Central United States, AOGS, Jul. 31 – Aug. 5, 2016, Beijing, China.

12. Xie, S. et al, 2015: Clouds and Precipitation Simulated by the US DOE ACME. Invited speaker, AOGS, Aug. 2-7, 2015, Singapore.

11. Collins. W., I., Kraucunas, and S. Xie, 2014: Climate Science. Presenter, National Lab Day on Capital Hill, Sept. 16, 2014, Washington D.C, USA.

10. Xie, S. et al., 2014: Understanding Climate Model Errors using the Weather Forecast Technique with Field Data. Invited speaker, AOGS, July 28 – Aug. Sapporo, Japan.

9. Xie, S. et al., 2014: The DOE ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud Property Retrievals. Invited speaker, AOGS, July 28 – Aug. Sapporo, Japan.

8. Xie, S. and J. Mather, 2013: The DOE ARM Program and Its Role in Climate Research. Invited speaker, The Next Generation Climate Data Products Workshop, 14-19 July 2013, Boulder, CO, USA.

7. Xie, S., A. Protat, and C. Zhao, 2013: The US-DOE ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud Property Retrievals. Invited speaker, AGU fall meeting, Dec. 9-13, 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA.

6. Xie, S., et al., 2013: Overview of the ASR QUICR Activities. Plenary talk, 2013 ASR Science Team Meeting, Mar. 18-21, 2013, Washington D. C., USA.

5. Xie S. et al., 2012: On the Correspondence between Short- and Long- Timescale Systematic Errors in Transpose-AMIP models. Plenary talk, 1st pan-GASS meeting, September 10-14, 2012, Boulder, CO, USA.

4. Xie. S. et al., 2012: Understanding Climate Model Parameterization Errors in Forecasts Using Field Data. Invited speaker, AOGS-AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly, Aug. 13-17, 2012, Singapore.

3. Xie S. et al., 2012: Correspondence between Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in Transpose-AMIP and CMIP5 Models. Invited speaker, AOGS-AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly, Aug. 13-17, 2012, Singapore.

2. Xie, S. et al., 2011: Development of the Large-Scale Forcing Data to Support MC3E Cloud Modeling Studies. Invited speaker, AGU fall meeting, Dec. 5-9, 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA.

1. Xie, S., 2011: Transform Detailed ARM Observations into An Useful Climate Modeling dataset. Invited Speaker, DOE ARM Data Developer Meeting. July 16 – 17, 2011, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

First Author Peer-Reviewed Publications (15)

15.     Xie, S., Y. Zhang, S. E. Giangrande, M. P. Jensen, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2014: Interactions between Cumulus Convection and Its Environment as Revealed by the MC3E Sounding Array.  J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 11784–11808, doi: 10.1002/2014JD022011.

14.     Xie, S., X. Liu, C. Zhao, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Sensitivity of CAM5 Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation, J. Clim. 26, 5981-5999, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00517.1.

13.     Xie, S., H. Ma, J. Boyle, S. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2012:  On the Correspondence between Short- and Long- Timescale Systematic Errors in CAM4/CAM5 for the Years of Tropical Convection.  J. Clim. 25, 7937–7955. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00134.1.

12.     Xie, S., and 16-coauthors, 2010: ARM climate modeling best estimate data, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 91, 13–20 , doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1 .

11.     Xie, S., T. Hume, C. Jakob, S. Klein, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2010: Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE, J. Climate, 23, 57-79, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1< .

10.     Xie, S., J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Liu and S. Ghan, 2008: Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D04211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009225 .

9.     Xie, S., S. Klein, M. Zhang, J. Yio, R. Cederall, and R. McCoy, 2006: Developing large-scale forcing data for single-column and cloud-resolving models from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment.  J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006950 .

8.     Xie, S., et al., 2006: An assessment of ECMWF analyses and model forecasts over the North Slope of Alaska using observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment.  J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006509 .

7.     Xie, S.,  and 24 co-authors, 2005: Simulations of midlatitude frontal clouds by SCMs and CSRMs during the ARM March 2000 Cloud IOP.   J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S03, doi:10.1029/2004JD005119

6.     Xie, S., M. H. Zhang, J. S. Boyle, R. T. Cederwall, G. L. Potter, and W. Y. Lin, 2004: Impact of a revised convective triggering mechanism on CAM2 model simulations: results from short-range weather forecasts.  J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14102, doi:10.1029/2004JD004692.

5.  Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Developing long-term single-column model/cloud system-resolving model forcing using numerical weather prediction products constrained by surface and top of the atmosphere observations.  J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004045

4.  Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, M. H. Zhang, and J. J. Yio, 2003: Comparison of SCM and CSRM Forcing Data Derived from the ECMWF Model and From Objective Analysis at the ARM SGP Site. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 4499, doi:10.1029/2003JD003541.

3.  Xie, S., et al., 2002: Intercomparison and Evaluation of Cumulus Parameterization under Summertime Midlatitude Continental Conditions.  Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 1095-1136, DOI: 10.1256/003590002320373229

2.  Xie, S., and M. H. Zhang, 2000: Impact of the Convection triggering Function on Single-Column Model Simulations.  J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14983-14996, DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900170

1.  Xie, S. C., 1991: A New Positive Definite Advection Scheme and its Application to the Moisture Equation. ACTA METEOROLOGICA SINICA, Vol.49, 11-20.

Other Peer-Reviewed Publications (60)

60.     Zhang, Y., S. Xie, et al., 2016: ARM Cloud Radar Simulator for Global Climate Models – A New Tool for Bridging Field Data and Climate Models. To be submitted to BAMS

59.     Zhang, Y., S. Klein, J. Fan, A. Chandra, P. Kollias, S. Xie, and S. Tang, 2016: Large eddy simulation of shallow cumulus over land: A composite case based on ARM long-term observations at the Southern Great Plains site. To be submitted to JAS.

58.     Zhang, C., S. Xie, S. Klein, and H. Ma, 2016: Diagnosis of the Summertime Warm Bias in Climate Models at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site. To be submitted to J. Climate.

57.      Feldman, D. R., W. D. Collins, S.C. Biraud, M.D. Risser, D.D. Turner, P.J. Gero, S. Xie, E.J. Mlawer, T.R Shippert, L.D. Riihimaki, E.J. Dlugokency, P.C. Novelli, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, M.S. Torn, 2016: First observation of CH4 surface radiative forcing reveals local dominance relative to CO2. To be submitted.

56.      Ciesielski, P., R. H. Johnson, X. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2016: Relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection during DYNAMO. JGR, submitted.

55.      Zhang, T., M. Zhang, Y. Lin, W. Xue, W. Lin, H. Yu, J. He, X. Xin, H. Ma, S. Xie, W. Zheng, 2016: An effective parameter optimization method via short-term hindcasts using an atmospheric GCM. JAMES, Submitted.

54.      Jiang, T., K. J. Evans, M. Branstetter, P. Caldwell, R. Neale, P. Rasch, Q. Tang, and S. Xie, 2016: Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric blocking in high-resolution configurations of the ACME simulations. JGR-atmosphere, Submitted.

53.      Tang, S., S. Xie, et al. 2016: Large-Scale Vertical Velocity, Diabatic Heating and Drying Profiles Associated with Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Convective Systems Observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-644, under review.

52.     Tang, S. , M. Zhang, and S. Xie 2015: Ensemble Constrained Variational Analysis of Atmospheric Forcing Data for Process Models and Application to Evaluate Simulated Clouds in CAM. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., doi: 10.1002/2015JD024167.

51.    Ma, H. et al. (including S. Xie) 2015: Evaluation and diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models with an improved hindcast approach. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, 1810–1827, doi:10.1002/2015MS000490.

50.    Jensen, M.P., W.A. Petersen, A. Bansemer, N. Bharadwaj, L.D. Carey, D.J. Cecil, S.M. Collis, A.D. Del Genio, B. Dolan, J. Gerlach, S.E. Giangrande, A. Heymsfield, G. Heymsfield, P. Kollias, T.J. Lang, S.W. Nesbitt, A. Neumann, M. Poellot, S.A. Rutledge, M. Schwaller, A. Tokay, C.R. Williams, D.B. Wolff, S. Xie, and E.J. Zipser, 2015: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., in press, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00228.1.

49.    Zhang, M., Somerville, R.C. and Xie, S., 2016. The SCM Concept and Creation of ARM Forcing Datasets. Meteorological Monographs, 57, pp.24-1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0040.1.

48.    Muhlbauer, A., T. P. Ackerman, P. R. Lawson, S. Xie, and Y. Zhang, 2015: An observationally-based study case of midlatitude cirrus for cloud-permitting and cloud-resolving models. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 6597-6618, doi:10.1002/2014JD022570.

47.    Chen, X., Q. Tang, S. Xie, and C. Zhao (2015), A variance-based decomposition and global sensitivity index method for uncertainty quantification: Application to retrieved ice cloud properties. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 4234–4247. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022750

46.    Boyle, J. S., Klein, S. A., Lucas, D. D., Ma, H. -Y. ., Tannahill, J. and Xie, S. (2015), The parametric sensitivity of CAM5's MJO. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120: 1424–1444. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022507.

45.    Vogelmann, A. M., A. M. Fridlind, T. Toto, S. Endo, W. Lin, J. Wang, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, D. D. Turner, Y. Liu, Z. Li, S. Xie, A. S. Ackerman, M. Zhang, and M. Khairoutdinov (2015), RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 1. Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 5962–5992. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022713.

44.     Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D., Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge, D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., and Xie, S.: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 421-434, doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015, 2015.

43.    Ma, H., S. Xie, S. Klein, et al. 2014: On the Correspondence between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models. J. Climate. 27, 1781-1798. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00474.1.

42.    Zhao, C., S. Xie, X. Chen, M. Jensen, and M. Dunn, 2014: Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals with a perturbation method.  J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 5375–5385, doi:10.1002/2013JD021112.

41.    Petch, J., A. Hill, L. Davis, A. Fridlind, C. Jakob, Y. Lin, S. Xie, and P. Zhu, 2014: Evaluation of intercomparison of four different types of model simulating TWP-ICE, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 826-837, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2192.

40.     Ma, H., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Development of Metrics and Diagnostics for CAM Climate Model Short-range Forecasts. J. Climate. 26, 1516-1534. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00235.1.

39.     Lin, Y., M. Zhao, Y. Ming, J-C. Golaz, L. J. Donner, S. A. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, and S. Xie, 2013: Precipitation partitioning, tropical clouds and intraseasonal variability in GFDL AM2. J. Clim. , 26, 5453–5466. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00442.1.

38.     Davies, L., et al. (including S. Xie), 2013: A Single Column Model Ensemble approach applied the TWP-ICE experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6544-6563, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50450.

37.     Davies, L. C. Jakob, V. Kumar, P. May and S. Xie, 2013: Relationships between the large-scale atmosphere and the small-scale state for Darwin, Australia. J. Geophys. Res., accepted. DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50645.

36.     Zhang, Y., S. Xie, C. Covey, D. D. Lucas, P. Gleckler, S. Klein, J. Tannahill, C. Doutriaux,and R. Klein, 2012: Regional assessment of the parameter-dependent performance of CAM4 in simulating tropical clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14708, doi:10.1029/2012GL052184.

35.     Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012: Evaluation of Cloud Fraction and Its Radiative Effect Simulated by IPCC AR4 Global Models Against ARM Surface Observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1785-1810. DOI:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012.

34.     Zhao, C., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, X. Liu, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012: Aerosol First Indirect effects on non-precipitating low-level liquid cloud properties as simulated by CAM5 at ARM sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L08806, doi:10.1029/2012GL051213.

33.  Fridlind, A., et al. (including S. Xie), 2012: A Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Based on the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment, Part I: Specification and Results versus Domain-Wide Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05204 DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016595.

32.  Zhao, C. S. Xie, S. Klein, et al., 2012: Toward Understanding of Differences in Current Cloud Retrievals of ARM Ground-based Measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10206, DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016792.  

31.  Huang, D., C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, 2012: An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implication for model evaluation studies. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1409-1424   DOI: 10.5194/amt-5-1409-2012.

30.  Lin, Y., L. J. Donner, J. Petch, P. Bechtold, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, T. Komori, K. Wapler, M. Willett, X. Xie, M. Zhao, S. Xie, S. A. MaFarlane, C. Schumacher, 2012: TWP-ICE global atmospheric model intercomparison: Convection responsiveness and resolution impact.  J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD017018.

29.  Chuang, C. C., J. Kelly, J. Boyle, and S. Xie, 2012:  Sensitivity of Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Nucleation and Autoconversion Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts over the Southern Great Plains During May 2003 IOP. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000161. 

28.  Liu, X., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Shi, Z. Wang, W. Lin, S. J. Ghan, M. Earle, P. S. K. Liu, and A. Zelenyuk1, 2011: Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00T11, doi:10.1029/2011JD015889.

27.  Zeng, X., W. Tao, T. Matsui, S. Xie, S. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li 2011: Estimating the ice crystal enhancement factor in the tropics.  J. Atmos. Sci. 68, 1424-1434.

26.  McFarquhar, G., S. Ghan, et al. (including S. Xie), 2011: Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC): The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds, Bull. Amer. Meteor.,doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2935.1.

25.  Kennedy, A., X. Dong, B. Xi, S. Xie, Y. Zhang, and J. Chen, 2011: A Comparison of MERRA and NARR Reanalysis Datasets with the DOE ARM SGP Continuous Forcing data. J. climate, 24   4541-4557   DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3978.1.

24.  Woolnough, S. J., P. N. Blossey, K .- M. Xu, P. Bechtold, J.-P. Chaboureau, T. Hosomi, S.F. Iacobellis, Y. Luo, J. C. Petch, R. Y. Wong, and S. Xie, 2010: Modeling convective processes during the suppressed phase of a Madden-Julian Oscillation: Comparing single-column models with cloud-resolving models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. ,136 , 333-353, DOI:10.1002/qj.568.

23.   Wang, W., X. Liu, S. Xie, J. Boyle, and S. McFarlane, 2009: Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM3 using TWP-ICE data, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14107, doi:10.1029/2008JD011220 .

22.  Zeng, X., W. Tao, M.Zhang, A. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. li, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2009: A contribution by ice neclei to global warming. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 1614-1629. DOI:10.1002/qj.449 .

21.  Klein et al. (including S. Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., . Soc., 135: 979-1002. DOI:10.1002/qi.416 .

20.   Marrison etal. (including S. Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135: doi :10.1002 /qj.415.

19.   Zeng, X., W. Tao et al., S. Xie , et al., 2009: The indirect effect of ice nuclei on atmospheric radiation.  J. Atmos. Sci. 66, 41-61. doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2778.1

18.   Boyle, J., S. Klein, G. Zhang, S. Xie, R. Pincus, and X. Wei, 2008: Climate model forecast experiments for TOGA-COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 808-832. doi: 10.1175/2007MWR2145.1

17.  Guo, H., J. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, 2007: In vestigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects on clouds during the May 2003 ARM intensive operational period at Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206, doi:10.1029/2006JD007173 .

16.   Zeng, X., W. Tao et al., S. Xie et al., 2007: Evaluation of long-term cloud resolving modeling with observational cloudy data.  J. Atmos. Sci. 64, 4153-4177. doi: 10.1175/2007JAS2170.1

15.   Liu, X., S. Xie, and S. J. Ghan, 2007: Evaluation of a new mixed-Phase cloud microphysics parameterization with the NCAR single column climate model (SCAM) and ARM M-PACE observations, Geophysical Research Letter, 34, L23712, doi:10.1029/2007GL031446 .

14.   Klein, S., X. Jiang, J. Boyle, S. Malyshev, S. Xie, 2006: Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S.  Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather forecasting approach.  Geophys. Res. Lett ., 33, L18805, doi:10.1029/2006GL027567

13.   Xu, K.-M., M. H. Zhang , …, S. Xie et al., 2005:. Modeling springtime shallow and deep frontal clouds with CRMs and SCMs.  J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD005153 .

12.  Boyle, J. S., et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Diagnosis of CAM2 in NWP configuration.  J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005042 .

11.  Williamson, D. L., et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Moisture and temperature budgets at the ARM SGP site in forecasts with CAM2.  J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005109 .

10.  Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, et al, and S. Xie, 2005: Comparing clouds and their variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements.   J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005021 .

9.  Phillips, T. J., et al., and S. Xie , 2004: The CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT): Where climate simulation meet with weather prediction.  Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,85 , 1903-1915.  doi: 10.1175/BAMS-85-12-1903

8.  Xu, K.-M., R. T. Cederwall et al., and S. Xie, 2002: An Intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the ARM summer 1997 IOP data. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 593-624. doi: 10.1256/003590002320373229

7.  Waliser, D. E., J. Ridout, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2002: A Model Assessment of the Variational Objective Analysis: Implications for Atmospheric Field Programs. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3436-3456. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<3436:VOAFAF>2.0.CO;2

6.  Zhang M. H., J. L. Lin, R. Cederwall, J. Yio, and S.C. Xie, 2001: Objective Analysis of ARM IOP Data: Method, Features, and Sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 295 – 311.doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0295:OAOAID>2.0.CO;2

5.  Ghan S., et al., and S. Xie, 2000: An Intercomparison of Single Column Model Simulations of Summertime Midlatitude Continental Convection.  J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2091-2121. doi: 10.1029/1999JD900971

4.  Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, and S. C. Xie, 1996: Relationship between Cloud Radiative Forcing and Sea Surface Temperatures over the Entire Tropical Oceans.  J. Climate, 9, 1374 -1384.doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1374:RBCRFA>2.0.CO;2

3.   Tu, W., S. C. Xie, and W. Chen, 1995: Experiments of the NMC (Beijing) T63 Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Operational System. Quart. J. of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 6, 199-205.

2.  Shen, Y., X. Ding, and S. Xie, 1994: Analysis increment vertical interpolation scheme in T63 data assimilation and its experiments. Quart. J. of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 4.

1.  Tian Y., and S. C.  Xie, 1987: Test of Explicit Integration Schemes for the Barotropic Primitive Equation Model. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, Vol.10, 95-102.

Selected White Papers and Other Program Documents (2011-2015)

1. Contributed to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Data Decadal Vision. DOE ARM documentation, in preparation, 2015.

2. DOE Workshop Report on “ACME/ASR/ARM coordination meeting”, Oct. 21-22, 2015, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation, in preparation, (workshop co-Chair).

3. DOE Workshop Report on “DOE Data and Informatics Workshop”, August 13-15, 2015, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation., in preparation, (workshop participant).

4. DOE Workshop Report on “The DOE High-Resolution Modeling Workshop”, May 19-20, 2014, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

5. DOE Workshop Report on “The DOE ARM North Slope of Alaska Supersite Workshop”, Sept. 10-11, 2014, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

6. Contributed to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Decadal Vision. DOE ARM documentation, http://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-sc-arm-14-029.pdf, 2014.

7. Haeffelin M. and S. Xie. 2013: US-EU Data-Harmonization Working Group Whitepaper for “Atmospheric Research Observatory Data Re-Analysis for GCM and LES Initialization and Evaluation and Climate Studies”. DOE ARM documentation.

8. DOE Workshop Report on “Climate Change Challenges and Observations”, November 2012, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

9. DOE Workshop Report on “Community Modeling and Long-Term Predictions of the Integrated Water Cycle”, September 2012, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

10 Xie, S., et al. 2011: The whitepaper for “Quantification of Uncertainty in Cloud Retrievals (QUICR)”. DOE ARM documentation.

11. Xie, S., et al. 2011: Guidance for Modification and Reprocessing of ARM Datastreams. DOE ARM documentation.