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Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison

Project Participants
Research Highlights & Publicity
Publications 2003-2013


Established in 1989 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) fosters and engages in research aimed at providing a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of climate models. Working with international partners, PCMDI has inspired a fundamental cultural shift in the climate research community: there is now an expectation that everyone should have timely and unimpeded access to output from standardized climate model simulations. This has enabled widespread scientific analysis and scrutiny of the models and, judging by the large number of resulting scientific publications, has accelerated our understanding of climate and climate change.

PCMDI’s mission is to develop improved methods and tools for the diagnosis and evaluation of climate models. Although models have become increasingly complex, model errors and disagreements among model simulations remain substantial and poorly understood. The nature and causes of these disagreements should be uncovered before the models are fully trusted to inform us about global climate change.

PCMDI provides leadership and infrastructure in support of internationally-coordinated model intercomparison activities and carries out research related largely to the multi-model ensemble of results hosted by PCMDI’s infrastructure. Ongoing PCMDI research focuses on 1) detecting and investigating the causes of climate-change (detection/attribution), 2) developing metrics and leading a WCRP metrics panel for evaluating model performance (e.g., Taylor diagrams and performance portraits), and 3) seeking a better understanding of a wide range of climate phenomena. (e.g., the Madden-Julian Oscillation and atmospheric tides). PCMDI also is encouraging the development of observational datasets needed for model evaluation through a relatively new obs4MIPs initiative.

A notable product of PCMDI’s leadership of coordinated modeling activities is the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) which subjects models worldwide to an evolving set of standardized numerical experiments. This has produced multi-model ensembles of simulations that have led to a better understanding of the limitations of any individual model. Although the WCRP’s Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) is ultimately responsible for CMIP, it relies on PCMDI to host the CMIP website and lead development and maintenance of data standards, the Earth System Grid, and other software, which have all been essential to the success of the project. By making CMIP model output freely available to researchers worldwide, PCMDI has enabled hundreds of research studies now reported on in the peer-reviewed literature (see CMIP3 and CMIP5 publication record). Many of the model-based conclusions appearing in each of the five assessment reports prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are drawn from the scientific foundation of the multi-model collection of CMIP simulations.

PCMDI is supported by the Regional and Global Climate Modeling (RGCM) Program in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) and its Climate and Environmental Sciences Division.


Project Participants

Karl Taylor (Principal Investigator and Director)
Celine Bonfils (climate scientist)
Curt Covey (climate scientist)
Charles Doutriaux (computer scientist)
Paul Durack (post-doc, climate scientist)
Michael Ganzberger (computer scientist)
Peter Gleckler (climate scientist)
Renata McCoy (computer scientist)
Jeff Painter (computer scientist)
Tom Phillips (climate scientist)
Ben Santer (climate scientist)
Ken Sperber (climate scientist)
Dean Williams (computer scientist)
Yuying Zhang (climate scientist)

Research Highlights & Publicity

Publications 2003-2013

(Researchers supported by PCMDI funding are in bold face font)


  • Santer, B.D., J. Painter, C. Bonfils, C. Mears, S. Solomon, T.M.L. Wigley, P.J. Gleckler, G.A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N.P. Gillett, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, and F.J. Wentz, 2013: Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere. Proc. Nat. Acad. of Sci., released online, doi: 10.1073/pnas1305332110.
  • Covey, C., R. M. Haberle, C. P. McKay and D. V. Titov, 2013: The greenhouse effect and climate feedbacks. In Comparative Climatology of the Terrestrial Planets. Mackwell, S., M. Bullock, and J. Harder (Eds.), University of Arizona Press, in press.
  • Hao, Z., A. AghaKouchak, and T.J. Phillips, 2013: Changes in concurrent precipitation and temperature extremes. Env. Res. Letters, in press.
  • Marvel, K., D. Ivanova, and K. E. Taylor, 2013: Scale space methods for climate model analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 188, 5082-5097, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50433.
  • Guilyardi, Eric, V. Balaji, B. Lawrence, S. Callaghan, C. DeLuca, S. Denvil, M. Lautenschlager, M. Morgan, S. Murphy, K.E. Taylor, and the METAFOR team, 2013: Documenting climate models and their simulations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 623-627, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00035.1
  • Pierce, D.W., P.J. Gleckler, T.P. Barnett, B.D. Santer, and P. Durack, 2012: The fingerprint of human-induced changes in the ocean’s salinity and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Letters, 39, L21704, doi: 10.1029/2012GL053389.
  • Sperber, K. R., H. Annamalai, I.-S. Kang, A. Kitoh, A. Moise, A. Turner, B. Wang, and T. Zhou, 2012: The Asian summer monsoon: An intercomparison of CMIP5 vs. CMIP3 simulations of the late 20th century. Clim. Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1607-6.
  • Zelinka, M.D., S.A. Klein, K.E. Taylor, T. Andrews, M.J. Webb, J.M. Gregory, and P.M. Forster, 2013. Contributions of different cloud types to feedbacks and rapid adjustments in CMIP5. J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00555.1.
  • Wigley, T.M.L., and B.D. Santer, 2013: A probabilistic quantification of the anthropogenic component of twentieth century warming. Clim. Dynamics, 40, 1087-1102, doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1585-8.
  • Santer, B.D., J.F. Painter, C.A. Mears, C. Doutriaux, P. Caldwell, J.M. Arblaster, P.J. Cameron-Smith, N.P. Gillett, P.J. Gleckler, J. Lanzante, J. Perlwitz, S. Solomon, P.A. Stott, K.E. Taylor, L. Terray, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, F.J. Wentz, T.M.L. Wigley, L.J. Wilcox, and C.-Z. Zou, 2013: Identifying human influences on atmospheric temperature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 26-33, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210514109.
  • 2012

  • Bonfils, C. W. J., T. J. Phillips, D. M. Lawrence, P. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Riley, and Z. M. Subin, 2012: On the influence of shrub height and expansion on northern high latitude climate. Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 015503, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/015503.
  • Durack, P. J., S. E. Wijffels, and R. J. Matear, 2012: Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950-2000. Science, 336, doi:10.1126/science.1212222.
  • Gleckler, P. J., B. D Santer, C. Domingues, D. Pierce, T. P. Barnett, J. Church, K. E. Taylor, K. AchutaRao, T. Boyer, M. Ishii, and P. Caldwell, 2012: Human-induced global ocean warming on multidecadal timescales. Nature Climate Change, 2, 524-529, doi:10.1038/nclimate1553.
  • Ivanova, D. P., J. L. McClean, and E. C. Hunke, 2012: Interaction of ocean temperature advection, surface heat fluxes and sea ice in the marginal ice zone during the North Atlantic Oscillation in the 1990s: A modeling study. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C02031, doi:10.1029/2011JC007532.
  • Sperber, K. R. and D. Kim, 2012: Simplified metrics for the identification of the Madden-Julian oscillation in models. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 13, 187-193, doi: 10.1002/asi.378.
  • Taylor, K. E., R. J. Stouffer, and G. A. Meehl, 2012: An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 485-498, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1.
  • Zhang, Y., S. Xie, C. Covey, D. D. Lucas, P. Gleckler, S. Klein, J. Tannahill, C. Doutriaux, and R. Klein, 2012: Regional assessment of the parameter-dependent performance of CAM4 in simulating tropical clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, doi: 1029/2012GL052184.
  • Andrews, T., J. M. Gregory, M. J. Webb, and K. E. Taylor, 2012: Forcing, feedbacks and climate sensitivity in a new generation of climate models. Geophys. Res. Letts. 39, L09712, doi:10.1029/2012GL051607.
  • Sen Gupta, A., L. C. Muir, J. N. Brown, S. J. Phipps, P. J. Durack, D. Monselesan, and S.E. Wijffels , 2012: Climate drift in the CMIP3 models. J. Clim., 25, 4621-4640, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00312.1
  • Subin, Z., L. Murphy, F. Li, C. Bonfils, and W. Riley, 2012: Boreal lakes moderate seasonal and diurnal temperature variation and perturb atmospheric circulation. Tellus-A, 64, 15635, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.15639.
  • Bonfils, C. and B. D. Santer, 2011: Investigating the possibility of a human component in various Pacific Decadal Oscillation indices. Clim. Dyn. 37, 1457-1468. DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0920-1
  • 2011

  • Covey, C., A. Dai, R. S. Lindzen, and D. Marsh, 2011: The surface-pressure signature of atmospheric tides in modern climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 495-514 doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3560.1
  • Durack, P. J., S. E. Wijffels, and N. L. Bindoff , 2011: [Global Oceans] Ocean salinity: A water cycle diagnostic? [In "State of the Climate in 2010"]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, pp. S91-93, doi:10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1.
  • Gleckler, P., R. Ferraro, and D. Waliser, 2011: Improving use of satellite data in evaluating climate models. EOS, 92, 20. DOI: 10.1029/2011EO200005
  • McClean, J. L., D. C. Bader, F. O. Bryan, M. E. Maltrud, J. M. Dennis, A. A. Mirin, P. W. Jones, Y. Y. Kim, D. P. Ivanova, M. Vertenstein, J. S. Boyle, R. L. Jacob, N. Norton, A. Craig, and P. H. Worley, 2011: A prototype two-decade fully-coupled fine-resolution CCSM simulation. Ocean Modelling, 39, 10-30, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.011.
  • Santer, B. D., C. A. Mears, C. Doutriaux, P. M. Caldwell, P. J. Gleckler, T. M .L. Wigley, S. Solomon, N. Gillett, D. P. Ivanova, T. R. Karl, J. R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, P. A. Stott, K. E. Taylor, P. Thorne, M. F. Wehner, and F. J. Wentz, 2011: Separating signal and noise in atmospheric temperature changes: The importance of timescale. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D22105, doi:10.1029/2011JD016263.
  • Santer, B. D., T. M. L. Wigley, and K. E. Taylor, 2011: The reproducibility of observational estimates of surface and atmospheric temperature change. Science, 334, 1232-1233. DOI: 10.1126/science.1216273
  • Sperber, K. R., J. M. Slingo, and P. M. Inness, 2011: Modelling the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Chapter 11 in “Intraseasonal Variability of the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System,” 2nd Edition, W.-K.-M. Lau and D. E. Waliser (editors), Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK.
  • Ahrens, J., B. Henderickson, G. Long, S. Miller, R. Ross, D. Williams, 2011: Data-intensive science in the U.S. DOE: Case studies and future challenges. Computing in Science and Engineering, 13, 14-, doi: 24.10.1109/MCSE.2011.77
  • Carman, J. C. and J. L. McClean, 2011: Investigation of IPCC AR4 coupled climate model North Atlantic mode water formation. Ocean Modelling, 40, 14-34, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.07.001
  • Ferguson, I. M., P. B. Duffy, T. J. Phillips, X. Liang, J. A. Dracup, S. Schubert, and P. Pegion, 2011: Non-stationarity of the signal and noise characteristics of seasonal precipitation anomalies. Climate Dyn., 36, 739-752. DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0850-y
  • Hendon, H., K. Sperber, D. Waliser, and M. Wheeler, 2011: Workshop on modelling monsoon intraseasonal variability: from theory to operational forecasting. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, ES32-ES35, doi: 10.1175/2011BAMS3164.1.
  • Jiang, X., D. E. Waliser, D. Kim, M. Zhao, K. R. Sperber, W. F. Stern, S. D. Schubert, G. J. Zhang, W. Wang, M. Khairoutdinov, R. B. Neale, and M-I. Lee, 2011: Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern Pacific ITCZ in climate models. Clim. Dynam, doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1098-x.
  • Kravitz, B., A. Robock, O. Boucher, H. Schmidt, K. E. Taylor, G. Stenchikov, and M. Schulz, 2011: The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). Atmos. Sci. Letts., 12, 162-167, doi: 10.1002/asl.316.
  • Parish, H. F., G. Schubert, C. Covey, R. L. Walterscheid, A. Grossman, and S. Lebonnois, 2011: Decadal variations in a Venus general circulation model. Icarus, 212, 42-65. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.015
  • Pierce D. W., T. P. Barnett and P. J. Gleckler, 2011: Ocean circulations, heat budgets, and future commitment to climate change. Annu. Rev. Environ. Res., 36, 27-43, doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-022610-112928.
  • Thorne, P. W., P. Brohan, H. A. Titchner, M. P. McCarthy, S. C. Sherwood, T. C. Peterson, L. Haimberger, D. E. Parker, S. F. B. Tett, B. D. Santer, D. R. Fereday, and J. J. Kennedy, 2011: A quantification of the uncertainties in historical tropical tropospheric temperature trends from radiosondes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, D12116, doi: 10.1029/2010JD015487.
  • Wehner, M. F., D .R. Easterling, J .H. Lawrimore, R. R. Heim, R. S. Vose, and B. D. Santer, 2011: Projections of future drought in the continental United States and Mexico. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12, 1359-1377. doi: 10.1175/2011JHM1351.1
  • 2010

  • Bonfils, C., and B.D. Santer, 2010: Investigating the possibility of a human component in various Pacific Decadal Oscillation indices. Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0920-1.
  • Duan, Q., and T. J. Phillips, 2010: Bayesian estimation of local signal and noise in multi-model simulations of climate change. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18123, doi:10.1029/2009JD013654.
  • Duffy, P. Santer, B.D., and Wigley, T.M.L., 2010: Interpretations of climate change data. Physics Today, 62 (11), 10-11. doi: 10.1063/1.3265248
  • Gottschalck, J., M. Wheeler, K. Weickmann, F. Vitart, N. Savage, H. Lin, H. Hendon, D. Waliser, K. Sperber, M. Nakagawa, C. Prestrelo, M. Flatau, and W. Higgins, 2010: A framework for assessing operational Madden - Julian oscillation forecasts: A CLIVAR MJO working group project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91, 1247-1258. doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2816.1
  • Knutti, R., G. Abramowitz, M. Collins, V. Eyring, P .J. Gleckler, B. Hewitson, and L. Mearns, 2010: Good practice guidance paper on assessing and combining multi-model climate projections. In: Meeting Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Expert Meeting on Assessing and Combining Multi-Model Climate Projections [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. IPCC Working Group I Technical Support Unit, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
  • Santer, B.D., and S. Solomon, 2010: Stephen H. Schneider (1945-2010). EOS , 91 (41), 372. doi:10.1029/2010EO410005
  • Santer, B.D., and T.M.L. Wigley, 2010: Detection and attribution. In: Climate Change Science and Policy, edited by Schneider, S.H., A. Rosencranz, M.D. Mastrandrea, and K. Kuntz-Duriseti,. Island Press, Washington D.C., pp. 28-43.
  • Turner, A., K. Sperber, J. Slingo, G. Meehl, C. R. Mechoso, M. Kimoto, and A. Giannini, 2010: Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and predicting current and future behaviour. Chapter 25 in The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, C.-P. Chang, Y. Ding, N.-C. Lau, R. H. Johnson, B. Wang, and T. Yasunari (editors), World Scientific Publication Company, Singapore.
  • 2009

  • Caldwell, P.M., H.-N. S. Chin, D.C. Bader, and G. Bala, 2009: Evaluation of a WRF Dynamical Downscaling Simulation over California. Clim. Ch. 95, 499-521, doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9583-5.
  • Das, T., H.G. Hidalgo, M.D. Dettinger, D.R. Cayan, D.W. Pierce, C. Bonfils, T.P. Barnett, G. Bala, and A. Mirin, 2009: Structure and Detectability of Trends inHydrological Measures over the western United States. J. Hydrometeor,10, 871-892, doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1095.1
  • Doutriaux C., R. Drach, R. McCoy, V. Mlaker, and D. Williams, 2009: Climate Data Analysis Tools: Facilitating scientific investigations, EOS Trans., 90, doi: 10.1029/2009EO350002.
  • Duffy, P.B. , B.D. Santer, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2009: Solar variability does not explain late-20th century warming. Physics Today, 49, 48-49.
  • Hidalgo, H., T. Das, M.D. Dettinger, D.R. Cayan, D.W. Pierce, T.P. Barnett, G. Bala, A. Mirin , A.W. Wood, C. Bonfils, B.D. Santer, and T. Nozawa, 2009: Detection and attribution of streamflow timing changes to climate change in the western United States. J. Clim., 22, 3838-3855. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2470.1
  • Hurrell, J., G.A. Meehl, D. Bader, T. Delworth, B. Kirtman, and B. Wielicki, 2009: Climate System Prediction. Bull.Amer.Meteor.Soc.90,1819-1832, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2752.1
  • Karl, T. R., J. M. Melillo, and T. C. Peterson, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press. (B. D. Santer, Lead Author of “Global Climate Change” chapter).
  • Kim, D., K.R. Sperber, W.S. Stern, D. Waliser, I.-S. Kang, E. Maloney, S. Schubert, W. Wang, K. Weickmann, J. Benedict, M. Khairoutdinov, M.-I. Lee, R. Neale, M. Suarez, K. Thayer-Calder, and G. Zhang, 2009: Application of MJO simulation diagnostics to climate models. J. Clim. 22, 6413-6436. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3063.1
  • Meehl, G.A., A. Hu, and B.D. Santer, 2009: The mid-1970s climate shift in the Pacific and the relative roles of forced versus inherent decadal variability. J. Clim., 22, 780- 792, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2552.1
  • Pierce, D.W., T.P. Barnett, B.D. Santer, and P.J. Gleckler, 2009: Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 8441-8446. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900094106
  • Randerson, J.T., F.M. Hoffman, P.E. Thornton, N.M. Mahowald, K. Lindsay, Y.-H. Lee, C.D. Nevison, S.C. Doney, G. Bonan, R. Stockli, C. Covey, S.W. Running, and I.Y. Fung, 2009: Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models. Glob. Ch. Biol. 15, 2462-2484, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01912.x
  • Santer, B.D., K.E. Taylor, P.J. Gleckler, C. Bonfils, T.P. Barnett, D.W. Pierce, T.M.L. Wigley, C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, W. Bruggemann, N.P. Gillett, S.A. Klein, S. Solomon, P.A. Stott, and M.F. Wehner, 2009: Incorporating model quality information in climate change detection and attribution studies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901736106 .
  • Santer, B.D., and T.M.L. Wigley, 2009: Progress in detection and attribution research, in Climate Change Science and Policy.S.H. Schneider, A. Rosencranz, and M. Mastrandrea, Eds.
  • Turner, A., K. Sperber, J. Slingo, G. Meehl, C.R. Mechoso, M. Kimoto, and A. Giannini, 2009: Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and predicting current and future behaviour. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Monsoons, Beijing China, Oct. 2008
  • Waliser, D., K. Sperber, H. Hendon, D. Kim, E. Maloney, M. Wheeler, K. Weickmann, C. Zhang, L. Donner, J. Gottschalck, W. Higgins, I.-S. Kang, D. Legler, M. Moncrieff, S. Schubert, W. Stern, F. Vitart, B. Wang, W. Wang, and S. Woolnough, 2009: CLIVAR Madden-Julian Oscillation Working Group: MJO simulation diagnostics. J. Clim. 22, 3006-3030, doi:10.1175/2008CLI2231.1
  • Williams, D.N. , R. Ananthakrishnan, D.E. Bernholdt, S. Bharathi, D. Brown, M. Chen, A.L. Chervenak, L. Cinquini, R. Drach, I.T. Foster, P. Fox, D. Fraser, J. Garcia, S. Hankin, P. Jones, D.E. Middleton, J. Schwidder, R. Schweitzer, R. Schuler, A. Shoshani, F. Siebenlist, A. Sim, W.G. Strand, M. Su, and N. Wilhelmi, 2009: The Earth System Grid: Enabling Access to Multi-Model Climate Simulation Data. Bull.Amer.Meteor.Soc. 90, p. 195. DOI: 10.1175/2008BAMS2459.1
  • 2008

  • Bader, D., C. Covey, W. Gutowski, I. Held, K. Kunkel, R. Miller, R. Tokmakian, and M. Zhang, 2008: Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations, A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research (Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.1). Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Washington, D.C., 124 pp. ( http://library.globalchange.gov/sap-3-1-climate-models-an-assessment-of-strengths-and-limitations).
  • Bala, G., P. B. Duffy, and K. E. Taylor, 2008: Impact of geoengineering schemes on the global hydrological cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 105, 7664-7666, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711648105.
  • Bala, G., R. Rood, D. Bader, A.Mirin, D. Ivanova, and C. Drui, 2008: Simulated climate near steep topography: Sensitivity to dynamical methods for atmospheric transport. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14807, doi:10.1029/2008GL033204.
  • Bala, G., R. Rood, A. Mirin, J. McClean, K. Achutarao, D. Bader, P. Gleckler, R. Neale, and P. Rasch, 2008: Evaluation of a high-resolution CCSM3 simulation with a finite volume dynamical core for the atmosphere. J. Clim., 21, 1467-1486, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2060.1.
  • Barnett, T.P., D. Pierce, H. Hidalgo, C. Bonfils, B.D. Santer, T. Das, G. Bala, A. Wood. T. Nozawa, A. Mirin, D. Cayan, and M. Dettinger, 2008: Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. Science, 319, 1080–1083, doi: 10.1126/science.1152538.
  • Bonfils, C., P.B. Duffy, B.D. Santer, T.M.L. Wigley, D.B. Lobell, T.J. Phillips, and C. Doutriaux, 2008: Identification of external influences on temperatures in California. Clim. Ch., 87, 43-55, doi: 10.1007/s10584-007-9374-9.
  • Bonfils, C., B.D. Santer, D.W. Pierce, H.G. Hidalgo, G. Bala, T. Das, T.P. Barnett, M. Dettinger, D.R. Cayan, C. Doutriaux, A.W. Wood, A. Mirin, and T. Nozawa, 2008: Detection and attribution of temperature changes in the mountainous western United States. J. Clim., 21, 6404-6424, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2397.1.
  • Byrne, D.A., and J. McClean, 2008: Sea level anomaly signals in the Agulhas Current region. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 L13701, doi:10.1029/2008GL034584
  • Domingues, C., J.A. Church, N.J. White, P.J. Gleckler, S.E. Wijffels, P.M. Barker, and J.R. Dunn, 2008: Rapid upper-ocean warming helps explain multi-decadal sea-level rise. Nature, 453, 1090 - 1093, doi: 10.1038/nature07080
  • Gillett, N.P., P.A. Stott, and B.D. Santer, 2008: Attribution of cyclogenesis region sea surface temperature change to anthropogenic influence. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L09707, doi:10.1029/2008GL033670.
  • Gleckler, P.J., K.E. Taylor, and C. Doutriaux, 2008: Performance metrics for climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06104, doi:10.1029/2007JD008972.
  • Lobell, D., and C. Bonfils, 2008: The effect of irrigation on regional temperatures: a spatial and temporal analysis of trends in California, 1934-2002. J. Clim., 21, 2063 - 2071, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1755.1.
  • Lobell, D., C. Bonfils, and J.-M. Faures, 2008: The role of irrigation expansion in past and future temperature trends. Earth Interactions, 12, 1 - 11.
  • Lobell, D., C. Bonfils, L. Kueppers, and M. Snyder, 2008: Irrigation cooling effect on temperature and heat index extremes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L09705, doi:10.1029/2008GL034145.
  • McClean, J., S. Jayne, M. Maltrud, and D. Ivanova, 2008: The Fidelity of Ocean Models with Explicit Eddies. In: Eddy-Resolving Ocean Modelling, M. Hecht and H. Hasumi, Eds., AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, Vol. 170, pp.149-163.
  • Pierce, D.W., T.P. Barnett, H.G. Hidalgo, T. Das, C. Bonfils, B.D. Santer, G. Bala, M.D. Dettinger, D.R. Cayan, A. Mirin, A.W. Wood, and T. Nozawa, 2008: Attribution of declining western U.S. snowpack to human effects. J. Clim., 21, 6425-6444, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2405.1
  • Pincus, R., C.P. Batstone, R.J. Patrick Hofmann, K.E. Taylor, and P.J. Gleckler, 2008: Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2007JD009334.
  • Rauscher, S.A., C. Covey, A. Henderson-Sellers, and F. Giorgi, 2008: Workshop report: Developing know-how on regional climate change research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 231-234, doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2665.1.
  • Santer, B.D., P.W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K.E. Taylor, T.M.L. Wigley, J.R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P.J. Gleckler, P.D. Jones, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G.A. Schmidt, S.C. Sherwood, and F.J. Wentz, 2008: Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. Int. J. Clim., 28, 1703-1722, doi: 10.1002/joc.1756.
  • Sperber, K.R., and H. Annamalai, 2008: Coupled model simulations of boreal summer intraseasonal (30-50 day) variability, Part 1: Systematic Errors and caution on use of metrics. Clim. Dyn., 31, 345-372, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0367-9.
  • Sperber, K.R., J.M. Slingo. D.E. Waliser, and P.M. Inness, 2008: Comment on "A Madden-Julian oscillation event simulated by a global cloud resolving model" by Miura et al. Science, 320, 612, doi: 10.1126/science.320.5876.612a
  • Sperber, K.R., and D.E. Waliser, 2008: New approaches to understanding, simulating, and forecasting the Madden-Julian oscillation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 1917-1920, doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2700.1.
  • 2007

  • AchutaRao, K., B.D. Santer, M. Ishii, P.J. Gleckler, K.E. Taylor, T.P. Barnett, D.W. Pierce, R.J. Stouffer, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2007: Simulated and observed variability in ocean temperature and heat content. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 104, 10,768-773, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0611375104.
  • Annamalai, H., K. Hamilton, and K.R. Sperber, 2007: South Asian summer monsoon and its relationship with ENSO in the IPCC AR4 simulations. J. Clim., 20, 1071–1092, doi:10.1175/JCLI4035.1.
  • Bala, G., K. Calderia, M. Wickett, T.J. Phillips, D. Lobell, C. Delire, and A. Mirin, 2007: Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 104, 6550–6555, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0608998104
  • Bonfils, C., P. Duffy, and D. Lobell, 2007: Comment on "Methodology and results of calculating Central California surface temperature trends: evidence of human-induced climate change?" by Christy et al. (2006). J. Clim., 20, 4486-4489, doi:10.1175/JCLI4247.1.
  • Bonfils, C., and D. Lobell, 2007: Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 104, 13,582-587, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0700144104.
  • Bonfils, C., P. Duffy, B. D. Santer, T. Wigley, D. B. Lobell, T. J. Phillips, C. Doutriaux, 2007: Identification of external influences on temperatures in California. Clim. Ch., 87, 43-55. DOI 10.1007/s10584-007-9374-9
  • Duffy, P., C. Bonfils, P. Gleick, and D. Lobell, 2007: Interpretating recent temperature trends in California. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 88, 409-410. DOI: 10.1029/2007EO410001
  • Hollingsworth, J.L., R.E. Young, G. Schubert, C. Covey, and A.S. Grossman, 2007: A simple-physics global circulation model for Venus: Sensitivity assessments of atmospheric superrotation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05202, doi:10.1029/2006GL028567.
  • Lobell, D., C. Bonfils, and P. Duffy, 2007: Climate change uncertainty for daily minimum and maximum temperatures: a model intercomparison. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05715, doi:10.1029/2006GL028726.
  • Maurer, E., I. Stewart, C. Bonfils, P. Duffy, and D. Cayan, 2007: Detection, attribution, and sensitivity of trends toward earlier streamflow in the Sierra Nevada. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11118, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008088.
  • Mears, C.A., B.D. Santer, F.J. Wentz, K.E. Taylor, and M. Wehner, 2007: The relationship between temperature and precipitable water changes over tropical oceans. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24709, doi:10.1029/2007GL031936
  • Meehl, G.A., C. Covey, T. Delworth, M. Latif, M. McAvaney, J.F.B. Mitchell, R.J. Stouffer, and K.E. Taylor, 2007: The global coupled model dataset: A new era in climate change research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 1383-1394, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-9-1383
  • Penner, J.E., W.M., A. Kumar, L. Rotstayn, and B.D. Santer, 2008: Effect of black carbon on mid-troposphere and surface temperature trends. In: Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment. M.E. Schlesinger, H.S. Kheshgi, J. Smith, F. De La Chesnaye, J.M. Reilly, C. Kolstad, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 18-33, doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511619472.004
  • Phillips, T.J., K. AchutaRao, D. Bader, C. Covey, P.J. Gleckler, K. Sperber, and K.E. Taylor, 2007: On the validity of climate models. EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 88, doi:10.1029/2007EO100005.
  • Rainville, L., S.R. Jayne, J.L. McClean, and M.E. Maltrud, 2007: Formation of Subtropical Mode Water in a High ­Resolution POP Simulation of the Kuroshio Extension Region, Ocean Modelling, 17, 338–356. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.03.002
  • Randall, D. A. and co-authors including K. E. Taylor, 2007: Climate models and their evaluation. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA.
  • Santer, B.D., C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, K.E. Taylor, P.J. Gleckler, T.M.L. Wigley, T.P. Barnett, J.S. Boyle, W. Bruggemann, N.P. Gillett, S.A. Klein, G.A. Meehl, T. Nozawa, D.W. Pierce, P.A. Stott, W.M. Washington, and M.F. Wehner, 2007: Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 104, 15248-15253, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0702872104.
  • Taylor, K.E., M. Crucifix, P. Braconnot, C.D. Hewitt, C. Doutriaux, M.J. Webb, A.J. Broccoli, and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2007: Estimating shortwave radiative forcing and response in climate models. J. Clim., 11, 2530-2543.doi: 10.1175/JCLI4143.1
  • Thorne, P.W., D.E. Parker, B.D. Santer, M.P. McCarthy, D.M.H. Sexton, M.J. Webb, J.M. Murphy, M. Collins, H.A. Titchner, and G.S. Jones, 2007: Tropical vertical temperature trends: A real discrepancy? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16702, doi:10.1029/2007GL029875.
  • 2006

  • AchutaRao, K., and K.R. Sperber, 2006: El Nino/Southern Oscillation simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: Are the current models better? Clim. Dyn., 27, 1-15, doi: 10.1007/s00382-006-0119-7.
  • AchutaRao, K.M., B.D. Santer, P.J. Gleckler, K.E. Taylor, D.W. Pierce, T.P. Barnett, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2006: Variability of ocean heat uptake: Reconciling observations and models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C05019, doi:10.1029/2005JC003136.
  • Bala, G., K. Calderia, A. Mirin, M. Wickett, C. Delire, and T.J. Phillips, 2006: Biogeophysical effects of CO2 -fertilization on global climate. Tellus, 56B, 620-627. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00210.x
  • Bala, G., K. Calderia, M. Wickett, T.J. Phillips, D. Lobell, C. Delire, and A. Mirin, 2006: Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 104, 6550-6555, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0608998104.
  • Barnier, B., G. Madec, G. Penduff, T. Molines, J.M. Treguier, A.M. LeSoommer, J. Beckman, A. Biastoch, A. Boning, C. Dengg, J. Gulev, S. Derval, C. Durand, E. Remy, E. Talandier, C. Thetten, M.E. Maltrud, J. McClean, and B. deCuevas, 2006: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection, schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution. Ocean Dyn., 56, 543-567, doi:10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1
  • Bonfils, C., P. Duffy, and D. Lobell, 2006: Comment on “Methodology and results of calculating Central California surface temperature trends: evidence of human-induced climate change?” by Christy et al. J. Climate, 20, 4486-4489.
  • Boyle, J., 2006: Upper level atmospheric stationary waves in the twentieth century climate of the Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006612.
  • Collins, W.D., M. Blackmon, C. Bitz, G. Bonan, C.S. Bretherton, J.A. Carton, P. Chang, S. Doney, J. J. Hack, J.T. Kiehl, T. Henderson, W.G. Large, D. McKenna, B.D. Santer, and R.D. Smith, 2006: The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3. J. Clim., 19, 2122-2143, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3761.1.
  • Covey, C., P. J. Gleckler, T. J. Phillips, and D. C. Bader, 2006: Secular trends and climate drift in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., (Atmospheres), 111, D03107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006009.
  • Forster, P.M., and K.E. Taylor, 2006: Climate forcings and climate sensitivities diagnosed from coupled climate model integrations. J. Clim., 19, 6181-6194, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3974.1.
  • Gleckler, P.J., K. AchutaRao, J.M. Gregory, B.D. Santer, K.E. Taylor, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2006: The effect of volcanic eruptions on ocean heat content and thermal expansion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17702, doi:10.1029/2006GL026771.
  • Gleckler, P.J., B.D. Santer, T.M.L. Wigley, J.M. Gregory, K. AchutaRao, and K.E. Taylor, 2006: Volcanoes and climate: Krakatoa's signature persists in the ocean. Nature, 439, 675, doi: 10.1038/439675a.
  • Gleckler, P.J., K.R. Sperber, and K. AchutaRao, 2006: The annual cycle of global ocean heat content: Observed and simulated. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06008, doi:10.1029/2005JC003223.
  • Lin, J.-L., G.N. Kiladis, B.E. Mapes, K.M. Weickmann, K.R. Sperber, W. Lin, M. Wheeler, S. Schubert, A. Del Genio, L.J. Donner, S. Emori, J-F. Gueremy, F. Hourdin, P.J. Rasch, E. Roeckner, and J.F. Scinocca, 2006: Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models part I: Convective signals. J Clim., 19, 2665-2690, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3735.1.
  • Meehl, G.A., W.M. Washington, B.D. Santer, W.D. Collins, J.M. Arblaster, A. Hu, D.M. Lawrence, H. Teng, L.E. Buja, and W.G. Strand, 2006: Climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries and climate change commitment in the CCSM3. J. Clim., 19, 2597-2616, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3746.1.
  • McClean, J., M.E. Maltrud, and F.O. Bryan, 2006: Measures of the fidelity of eddying ocean models. Oceanography, 19, 104-117. doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2006.94
  • Phillips, T.J., 2006: Reproducibility of seasonal land surface climate. J. Hydromet., 7, 114-136.
    doi: 10.1175/JHM453.1
  • Phillips, T.J., K. AchutaRao, D. Bader, C. Covey, C.M. Doutriaux, M. Fiorino, P.J. Gleckler, K.R. Sperber, and K.E. Taylor, 2006: Coupled climate model appraisal: A benchmark for future studies. Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 87, doi:10.1029/2006EO190002.
  • Phillips, T.J., and P.J. Gleckler, 2006: Evaluation of continental precipitation in 20th-century climate simulations: The utility of multi-model statistics. Water Resour. Res., 42, W03202, doi:10.1029/2005WR004313.
  • Pierce, D.W., P.J. Gleckler, T.P. Barnett, K.M. AchutaRao, J.M. Gregory, and W.M. Washington, 2006: Anthropogenic warming of the oceans: observations and model results. J. Clim., 19, 1873–1900, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3723.1.
  • Pierce, D.W., P.J. Gleckler, T.P. Barnett, and E. Fetzer, 2006: Three-dimensional tropospheric water vapor in coupled climate models compared with observations from the AIRS satellite system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21701, doi:10.1029/2006GL027060.
  • Ramaswamy, V., B.D. Santer, M.D. Schwarzkopf, W.J. Randel, B.J. Soden, and G.L. Stenchikov, 2006: Anthropogenic and natural influences in the evolution of lower stratospheric cooling. Science, 311, 1138-1141, doi: 10.1126/science.1122587.
  • Santer, B.D., J.E. Penner, P.W. Thorne, W.D. Collins, K.W. Dixon, T.L. Delworth, C. Doutriaux, C.K. Folland, C.E. Forest, J.R. Lanzante, G.A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, D. J. Seidel, M.F. Wehner, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2006: How well can the observed vertical temperature changes be reconciled with our understanding of the causes of these changes? In: Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Karl, T.R., S. J. Hassol, C.D. Miller, and W. L. Murray, Eds., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, USA, 89–108.
  • Santer, B., T. Wigley, P. Gleckler, C. Bonfils, and 15 authors, 2006: Causes of ocean surface temperature changes in Atlantic and Pacific hurricane formation regions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 103, 13905-13910, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0602861103.
  • Schubert, G., S. W. Bougher, C. C. Covey, A. D. Del Genio, A. S. Grossman, J. L. Hollingsworth, S. S. Limaye, and R. E. Young, 2007: Venus atmosphere dynamics: A continuing enigma, in Proceedings of the 2006 Chapman Conference on Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet. Geophysical Mongraphs Series, Vol. 176, L. Esposito, E. R. Stofan and T. E. Cravens, eds. American Geophysical Union, pp. 121-138 of 300. DOI: 10.1029/176GM07
  • Sperber, K.R., and T. Yasunari, 2006: The 1st Pan-WCRP workshop on monsoon climate systems: Toward better prediction of monsoons. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 1399-1403, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-10-1399.
  • Stenchikov, G., K. Hamilton, R. Stouffer, B.D. Santer, A. Robock, V. Ramaswamy, and H.F. Graf, 2006: Arctic Oscillation response to volcanic eruptions in the IPCC AR4 19-20th century runs. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006286
  • Stott, P.A., J.F.B. Mitchell, T. Delworth, J.M. Gregory, G.A. Meehl, and B.D. Santer, 2006: Robustness of estimates of greenhouse attribution and observationally constrained predictions of global warming. J. Clim., 19, 3055–3069, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3802.1.
  • Sun, D.Z., T. Zhang, C. Covey, S.A. Klein, W.D. Collins, H.J.J., J.T. Kiehl, G.A. Meehl, I.M. Held, and M. Suarez, 2006: Radiative and dynamical feedbacks over the equatorial cold-tongue: Results from nine atmospheric GCMs. J. Clim., 19, 4059–4074, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3835.1
  • Webb, M.J., C.A. Senior, D.M.H. Sexton, W.J. Ingram, K.D. Williams, M.A. Ringer, B. J. McAvaney, R. Colman, B.J. Soden, R. Gudgel, T. Knutson, S. Emori, T. Ogura, Y. Tsushima, N. Andronova, B. Li, I. Musat, S. Bony, and K.E. Taylor, 2006: On the contribution of local feedback mechanisms to the range of climate sensitivity in two GCM ensembles. Clim. Dyn., 27, 17-38, doi: 10.1007/s00382-006-0111-2.
  • Wigley, T.M.L., V. Ramaswamy, J.R. Christy, J.R. Lanzante, C.A. Mears, B.D. Santer, C.K. Folland, T.R. Karl, S.J. Hassol, C.D. Miller, and W.L. Murray, 2006: Executive Summary. In: Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Karl, T.R., S.J. Hassol, C.D. Miller, and W.L. Murray, Eds., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, 1-14.
  • Zhang, C., K.R. Sperber, M. Dong, S. Guild, H.H. Hendon, E.D. Maloney, M.A., and W. Wang, 2006: Simulations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in four pairs of coupled and uncoupled global models. Clim. Dyn.,27, 573-592, doi: 10.1007/s00382-006-0148-2
  • 2005

  • Annamalai, H., and K.R. Sperber, 2005: Regional heat sources and the active and break phases of Boreal summer intraseasonal variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2726-2748. doi: 10.1175/JAS3504.1
  • Bader, D., A. Bamzai, J. Fein, A. Patrinos, and M. Leinen, 2005: The community climate system model project from an interagency perspective. EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 86 , 309 - 310.
  • Barnett, T.P., D. Pierce, K. AchutaRao, P. Gleckler, B.D. Santer, J. Gregory, and W. Washington, 2005: Penetration of human-induced warming signal into the world's oceans. Science, 309, 284-287, doi: 10.1126/science.1112418 .
  • Barnett, T.P., F. Zwiers, G. Hegerl, M. Allen, T. Crowley, N. Gillett, K. Hasselmann, P. D. Jones, B.D. Santer, R. Schnur, P. Stott, K.E. Taylor, and S.F.B. Tett, 2005: Detecting and attributing external influences on the climate system: A review of recent advances. J. Clim., 18, 1291-1314, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3329.1.
  • Boyle, J.S., D. Williamson, R. Cederwall, M. Fiorino, J. Hnilo, J. Olson, T. Phillips, G. Potter, and S. Xie, 2005: Diagnosis of community atmospheric model 2 (CAM2) in numerical weather forecast configuration at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement sites. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S15, doi:10.1029/2004JD005042.
  • Eyring, V., N.R.P. Harris, M. Rex, T.G. Shepherd, D.W. Fahey, G.T. Amanatidis, J. Austin, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, P.M.D.F. Forster, A. Gettelman, H.F. Graf, T. Nagashima, P.A. Newman, S. Pawson, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, R.J. Salawitch, B.D. Santer, and D.W. Waugh, 2005: A strategy for process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1117–1133, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-86-8-1117.
  • Gibbard, S., K. Caldeira, G. Bala, T.J. Phillips, and M. Wickett, 2005: Climate effects of global land cover change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23705, doi:10.1029/2005GL024550.
  • Gleckler, P.J., 2005: Surface energy balance errors in AGCMs: Implications for ocean-atmosphere model coupling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15708, doi:10.1029/2005GL023061.
  • Hatsushika, H., J. Tsutsui, M. Fiorino, and K. Onogi, 2005: Impact of wind profile retrievals on the analysis of tropical cyclones in the JRA-25 reanalysis. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84, 891–905.
  • Liu, P., B. Wang, K.R. Sperber, T. Li, and G.A. Meehl, 2005: The Madden-Julian oscillation in the national center for atmospheric research community atmospheric model-2 with the Tiedtke convective scheme. J. Clim., 18, 3007–3020, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3458.1
  • McClean, J., D. Ivanova, and J. Sprintall, 2005: Remote origins of interannual variability in the Indonesian Throughflow region from data and a global Parallel Ocean Program simulation. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10013, doi:10.1029/2004JC002477.
  • Meehl, G. A., C. Covey, B. McAvaney, M. Latif, and R. J. Stouffer, 2005: Overview of the coupled model intercomparison project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 89–93, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-86-1-89.
  • Prasad, T., J. McClean, E. Hunke, A. Semtner, and D. Ivanova, 2005: A numerical study of the western Cosmonaut polynya in a coupled ocean-sea ice model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C10008, doi:10.1029/2004JC002858.
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, S.A. Klein, D.J. Seidel, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, P.J. Gleckler, J.S. Boyle, W.D. Collins, K.W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J.E. Hansen, J.G.S., R. Ruedy, T.R. Karl, J.R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551–1556, doi: 10.1126/science.1114867.
  • K. R. Sperber, Slingo, J. M. and P. M. Inness, 2005: Modelling the Madden-Julian oscillation. Chapter 11 in Intraseasonal Variability of the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System. W.K.M. Lau and D. E. Waliser, Eds., Praxis Publishing, Chicchester, UK., 436pp.
  • Sperber, K.R., G. Gualdi, S. Legutke, and V. Gayler, 2005: The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled GCMs. Clim. Dyn., 25, 117–140, doi: 10.1007/s00382-005-0026-3.
  • Sudradjat, A., R. R. Ferraro, and M. Fiorino, 2005: A comparison of total precipitable water between reanalyses and NVAP. J. Clim., 18, 1790–1807, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3379.1.
  • Wigley, T.M.L., C.M. Ammann, B.D. Santer, and S.C.B. Raper, 2005: The effect of climate sensitivity on the response to volcanic forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D09107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005557.
  • Wigley, T.M.L., C.M. Ammann, B.D. Santer, and K.E. Taylor, 2005: Comment on "Climate forcing by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo" by David H. Douglass and Robert S. Knox. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20709, doi:10.1029/2005GL023312.
  • 2004

  • Coquard, J., P.B. Duffy, K.E. Taylor, and J.P. Iorio, 2004: Present and future surface climate in the western USA as simulated by 15 global climate models. Clim. Dyn., 23, 455–472, doi: 10.1007/s00382-004-0437-6.
  • Covey, C., K.M. AchutaRao, P.J. Gleckler, T.J. Phillips, K.E. Taylor, and M.F. Wehner, 2004: Coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations compared with simulations using prescribed sea surface temperature: effect of a 'perfect ocean'. Global and Planet. Ch., 41, 1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2003.09.003
  • Gillett, N.P., B.D. Santer, and A.J. Weaver, 2004: Stratospheric cooling and the troposphere. Nature, 432, doi:10.1038/nature 03209.
  • Hannachi, A., D.B. Stephenson, and K.R. Sperber, 2004: Probability-based methods for quantifying nonlinearity in the ENSO (Erratum). Clim. Dyn., 22, 69–70, doi: 10.1007/s00382-003-0377-6.
  • Phillips, T.J., and P.J. Gleckler, 2004: Evaluation of continental precipitation in 20th-century climate simulations. Water Resour. Res., 42, W03202, doi:10.1029/2005WR004313.
  • Phillips, T.J., G.L. Potter, D.L. Williamson, R.T. Cederwall, J. S. Boyle, M. Fiorino, J.J. Hnilo, J.G. Olson, S. Xie, and J.J. Yio, 2004: Evaluating parameterizations in general circulation models: Climate simulation meets weather prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 1903–1915, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-85-12-1903.
  • Santer, B.D., M.F. Wehner, T.M.L. Wigley, R. Sausen, G.A. Meehl, K.E. Taylor, C. Ammann, J. Arblaster, W.M. Washington, J.S. Boyle, and W. Bruggemann, 2004: Response to comment on "Contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcing to recent tropopause height changes". Science, 303, 1771, doi: 10.1126/science.1092441 .
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, and R. Ragaini, 2004: New fingerprints of human effects on climate. In: International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 30th Session, World Scientific Publishing, New Jersey, 69–85. DOI:10.1142/9789812702753_0008
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, A. Simmons, P. Kalberg, G. Kelly, S. Uppala, C. Ammann, J.S. Boyle, W. Bruggemann, C. Doutriaux, M. Fiorino, C. Mears, G.A. Meehl, R. Sausen, K.E. Taylor, W.M. Washington, M.F. Wehner, and F.J. Wentz, 2004: Identification of anthropogenic climate change using a second-generation reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005075.
  • Seidel, D. J., J. Angell, et al., 2004: Uncertainty in signals of large-scale climate variations in radiosonde and satellite upper-air temperature datasets. J. Clim., 17, 2225-2240, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2225:UISOLC>2.0.CO;2
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  • 2003

  • Black, E., J. Slingo, and K.R. Sperber, 2003: East African rainfall and Indian Ocean SST. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 74–94, doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<0074:AOSOTR>2.0.CO;2.
  • Covey, C., K.M. AchutaRao, U. Cubasch, P. Jones, S.J. Lambert, M.E. Mann, T.J. Phillips, and K.E. Taylor, 2003: An overview of results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Glob. Planet. Ch., 37, 103–133. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8181(02)00193-5
  • Duffy, P. B., B. Govindasamy, J. P. Iorio, J. Milovich, K. R. Sperber, K. E. Taylor, M. F. Wehner, and S. L. Thompson, 2003: High resolution simulations of global climate, part 1: present climate. Clim. Dyn., 21, 371-390, doi: 10.1007/s00382-003-0339-z
  • Hanachi, A., D. B. Stephenson, and K. R. Sperber, 2003: Probability-based methods for quantifying nonlinearity in the ENSO. Clim. Dyn., 20, 241–256, doi: 10.1007/s00382-002-0263-7.
  • Hodges, K.I., B.J. Hoskins, J. Boyle, and C. Thorncroft, 2003: A comparison of recent reanalysis datasets using objective feature tracking: storm tracks and tropical Easterly waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2012–2037, doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2012:ACORRD>2.0.CO;2.
  • Santer, B.D., R. Sausen, T.M.L. Wigley, J.S. Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, J.E. Hansen, G.A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and K.E. Taylor, 2003: Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4002, doi:10.1029/2002JD002258.
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, G.A. Meehl, M.F. Wehner, C. Mears, M. Schabel, F.J. Wentz, C. Ammann, J. Arblaster, T. Bettge, W.M. Washington, K.E. Taylor, J.S. Boyle, W. Bruggemann, and C. Doutriaux, 2003: Influence of satellite data uncertainties on the detection of externally-forced climate change. Science, 300, 1280–1284, doi:10.1126/science.1082393.
  • Santer, B.D., M.F. Wehner, T.M.L. Wigley, R. Sausen, G.A. Meehl, K.E. Taylor, C. Ammann, J. Arblaster, W.M. Washington, J.S. Boyle, and W. BrĂ¼ggemann, 2003: Contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcing to recent tropopause height changes. Science, 301, 479–483, doi:10.1126/science.1084123.
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, G.A. Meehl, M.F. Wehner, C. Mears, M. Schabel, F.J. Wentz, C. Ammann, J. Arblaster, T. Bettge, W.M. Washington, K.E. Taylor, J.S. Boyle, W. Bruggemann, and C. Doutriaux, 2003: Response to J.R. Christy and R.W. Spencer. Science, 301, 1047–1049, doi: 10.1126/science.301.5636.1046.
  • Sausen, R., and B.D. Santer, 2003: Use of changes in tropopause height to detect human influences on climate. Meteor. Z., 12, 131–136.DOI: 10.1127/0941-2948/2003/0012-0131
  • Smith, R.L., T.M.L. Wigley, and B.D. Santer, 2003: A bivariate time series approach to anthropogenic trend detection in hemispheric mean temperatures. J. Clim., 16, 1228–1240, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)16<1228:ABTSAT>2.0.CO;2.
  • Sperber, K.R., 2003: Propagation and the vertical structure of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 3018–3037, doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<3018:PATVSO>2.0.CO;2.



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